The more reactive metals react with acids to form a salt and water. This can be shown in an equation:
metal + acid salt + hydrogen
Unreactive metals, such as gold, copper, silver etc... do not react with acids.
The three main acids that are used in the science lab are hydrochloric acid (HCl), sufuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3).
The salt produced depends on the acid that is used to produce it. The table below shows the type of salts that are produced from these acids:
|Acid Name||Type of Salt|
Metals react with hydrochloric acid to produce chloride salts for example magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce the salt magnesium chloride.
magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen
Mg+ HCl2MgCl2 + H2
During this reaction bubbles of hydrogen gas will be released and the test tube will become hot because it is an exothermic reaction.
Metals react with sufuric acid to produce sulfate salts.
zinc + sulfuric acid zinc sulfate + hydrogen
Zn+ H2SO4ZnSO4+ H2
Metals react with nitric acid to produce nitrate salts.
magnesium + nitric acid magnesium nitrate + hydrogen
Mg+ 2HNO3Mg(NO3)2 + H2
As you can see from the equations the reaction of a metal and acid produces hydrogen gas. This gas can easily be identified in the lab because it burns with a pop when introduced to a naked flame.
Identify the acid which can be used to produce the salts shown.
|hydrochloric acid||sulfuric acid||nitric acid|
Match up the formula below with the correct acid name, using the letters A, B and C:
A = H2SO4
B = HCl
C = HNO3
Match the salt name on the right to the correct acid that is was produced from on the left.
Complete the following equation by typing the name of the missing chemical in the text box below.
calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid ______________+ water + carbon dioxide