# SATs / End of key stage 2 Science Assessment: Physics

In this assessment, students will review their understanding of various topics across the Physics programmes of study at key stage 2. It may take approximately 45 minutes to complete.

Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   End of Key Stage Assessments

Curriculum subtopic:   Starter Assessment

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

In this assessment, we'll review your understanding of Physics at key stage 2.  This is a timed activity and will take approximately 45 minutes to complete. Don't worry if it takes you longer.

When two magnets are pushed towards each other with their north poles facing, what will happen?

they will repel

they will attract

nothing will happen

When two magnets are pushed towards each other with one north pole facing a south pole, what will happen?

they will repel

they will attract

nothing will happen

Look at this picture of two magnets:

What will happen when they are pushed towards each other?

they will stay in the same place

they will push each other away

they will pull towards each other

Where is the pushing/pulling force strongest on a magnet?

in the middle of the magnet

at the ends of the magnet

it's the same right across the magnet

Here is a wooden train set.

The wooden engine is not coupled to any carriages despite both having magnets.

Why are the engine and the carriages not coupled together?

The distance between the two objects is too great.

Blue engines cannot couple to yellow trucks.

The wrong magnetic poles are facing each other.

Which of these items are attracted to a magnet? (Tick all ones you think are right).

steel knife

gold cup

aluminium foil

iron nail

plastic plate

wooden spoon

brass key

Why can a magnet be used under a piece of paper to move a small steel ladybird which is sitting on top of the paper?

because the ladybird is magnetic but the paper is not

because the ladybird and the paper are both magnetic

because the paper is attracted to the magnet

Shadows move their position as the direction of the light changes.

Here's a picture of a plastic duck being lit up by a torch:

Look at the three possible shadows compared to where the torch is.

Which one do you think is correct?

A

B

C

Here's a picture of Fido and his shadow on the ground.

In what ways do you think his shadow would be different if Fido was stood on his garden wall looking at his shadow further away below him on the path?

Tick all the answers you think are right.

his shadow would be smaller

his shadow would be bigger

his shadow would be the same size

his shadow would be thinner

his shadow would be fatter

As you know the Sun moves across the sky during the day. As it does so the shape of the shadows it makes changes.

Here are five pictures of a house, its shadow changing with the position of the Sun in the sky:

Match the picture to the time of day you think it represents according to where the Sun is and the shape of its shadow. By the way, you're looking south!

## Column B

A
18:00/6pm
B
15:00/3pm
C
12:00/12pm
D
06:00/6am
E
09:00/9am

Frank is out for a walk. On his walk he sees a fine cedar tree.

Which of these drawings shows correctly the way that Frank is able to see the tree.

OR...

OR...

NB: Light rays are shown by a line with an arrowhead in it, which shows the direction the light is travelling in.

A

B

C

Some questions are hard to investigate, so scientists gather EVIDENCE, just like detectives.

Which THREE pieces of EVIDENCE do we have that the Earth is a SPHERE?

When ships sail away, the bottom half (hull) disappears first.

The sun sets.

Ships can sail all the way around the Earth.

We have photographs taken from space.

There is no evidence - the world is flat!

Which TWO of these statements are true?

The Earth orbits the sun.

The moon orbits the sun.

The moon orbits the Earth.

The sun orbits the Earth.

The sun orbits the moon.

Once upon a time people believed that the sun moved across the sky during the day. We now know that...

The sun spins but the Earth does not.

The sun APPEARS to move because the Earth spins.

At night the moon blocks out the sun.

A day is a measure of how long it takes the Earth to...

travel around the sun

travel around the moon

rotate once

Objects that allow electricity to pass along them are called what?

conductors

wires

insulators

Which of the following materials do not allow current through them (tick all the ones that don't)?

wooden spoon

silver spoon

plastic paperclip

paper cup

door key

Look at this circuit and decide what is happening:

nothing happens

both bulbs will light up

only one bulb will light up (there's one battery)

Match the symbol to what it represents:

## Column B

W
motor
X
buzzer
Y
bulb
Z
cell

In this circuit what happens when the switch is closed?

bulb turns on

motor turns on

both turn on

Look at this circuit carefully:

Which one of the following descriptions of how the circuit works is correct?

when switch S1 is closed the buzzer sounds

when switch S2 is closed the bulb lights

when switch S1 is closed the bulb lights

when switch S2 is closed the buzzer sounds

when both switches are closed both the buzzer and the bulb turn on

when both switches are closed the buzzer sounds but the bulb is off

when both switches are closed the bulb lights but the buzzer is off

Gravity is an important force that attracts all objects on our planet - but where does it attract them to?

towards the centre of the Earth

towards the surface of the Earth

downwards

What sort of force is air resistance?

a pulling force

a pushing force

a turning force

an air force

When an object is falling which direction does air resistance act in?

sideways

downwards

upwards

air resistance doesn't act on falling objects

What word describes something that is shaped to go through the water with the least amount of water resistance?

waterproofed

airtight

streamlined

outlined

Once he's finished his sandwich, Nathan decides it's time to do some bike maintenance.

He goes out to his bike only to discover that the front tyre's flat. He's going to need to take the front wheel off to mend the puncture.

To undo the nut holding the wheel on Nathan uses a long spanner.

Why do you think a long spanner is best for this job?

it grips the nut better

it's much stronger

it means Nathan uses less force to undo the nut

We hear the music from instruments because the sound waves...

travel through the air

travel through the radio

are loud

Choose the correct order of these three materials from FASTEST to SLOWEST in terms of speed of sound.

gas - liquid - solid

liquid - gas - solid

solid - gas - liquid

liquid - solid - gas

solid - liquid - gas

Which THREE of these changes to the strings change the PITCH of a stringed instrument?

colour

thickness

plucking

length

tightness

Finish this sentence:

Plucking a string harder makes a......

louder sound

high-pitched sound

softer sound

Here is a buzzer connected to a cell and a switch:

When the switch is closed the buzzer makes a noise. Why do you think it does?

the switch made electricity

the switch connected the buzzer and the cell together

the switch let electricity out of the buzzer

Ali connected a 1.5V battery to a 1.5V bulb and the bulb glowed with normal brightness.

Ali then started to add more 1.5V batteries to the circuit, in series with his first battery. He noticed that the bulb glowed brighter.

If Ali keeps on adding batteries what do you think will happen?

the bulb will glow so brightly that Ali will find it difficult to look at

the filament in the bulb will burn out

the bulb will get brighter to start off with and then stay at the same brightness

Imagine you have connected a bulb and a cell together and the bulb lights.

Next you add another bulb to your circuit. What will happen to the brightness of the two bulbs?

they will be dimmer

they will be brighter

they will stay the same

Now you change your circuit again: you connect one bulb and two batteries.

Which statement BEST describes the brightness of the bulb?

bright

very bright

dim

Finally you build a circuit with one bulb and one battery. The bulb glows.

Next you add a motor to this circuit. Now the bulb does not glow and the motor does not work.

What is the best solution?

plug into the mains

connect another motor

connect another battery

• Question 1

When two magnets are pushed towards each other with their north poles facing, what will happen?

they will repel
EDDIE SAYS
Remember: similar poles always REPEL each other (they push away from each other). Here it's N-N so they'll repel.
• Question 2

When two magnets are pushed towards each other with one north pole facing a south pole, what will happen?

they will attract
EDDIE SAYS
Remember: different poles always ATTRACT (stick together) so in this case the north pole will attract the south pole, meaning that they move together.
• Question 3

Look at this picture of two magnets:

What will happen when they are pushed towards each other?

they will push each other away
EDDIE SAYS
As you can see the same poles are facing each other:N-N. That means that they will repel - push each other away.
• Question 4

Where is the pushing/pulling force strongest on a magnet?

at the ends of the magnet
EDDIE SAYS
The greatest magnetic force in a magnet is at either end - THE POLES. These are either North or South, even in a horseshoe magnet or a round magnet. So you will always be able to pick up more objects with the poles than the middle.
• Question 5

Here is a wooden train set.

The wooden engine is not coupled to any carriages despite both having magnets.

Why are the engine and the carriages not coupled together?

The distance between the two objects is too great.
EDDIE SAYS
These trains are fabulous but they only couple together by magnetism when they are close to each other.
• Question 6

Which of these items are attracted to a magnet? (Tick all ones you think are right).

steel knife
iron nail
EDDIE SAYS
Bit more difficult! It's not simply the metal ones ... the wooden spoon and plastic plate are not metals and so are not magnetic. Of the rest gold, aluminium and brass are metals but are not attracted to a magnet. Only things made of iron (and steel) and nickel are attracted.
• Question 7

Why can a magnet be used under a piece of paper to move a small steel ladybird which is sitting on top of the paper?

because the ladybird is magnetic but the paper is not
EDDIE SAYS
Magnetism is a force that can pass through non-magnetic materials, like paper. The thinner they are, the greater the magnetic force, so the ladybird will be moved easily by the magnet on the paper. It will often work through a table, but the magnet will need to be quite strong.
• Question 8

Shadows move their position as the direction of the light changes.

Here's a picture of a plastic duck being lit up by a torch:

Look at the three possible shadows compared to where the torch is.

Which one do you think is correct?

B
EDDIE SAYS
From where the torch is the shadow must fall in line with the duck and the light source, so B must be the one. A would form if the light was directly above and C if it was straight in front.
• Question 9

Here's a picture of Fido and his shadow on the ground.

In what ways do you think his shadow would be different if Fido was stood on his garden wall looking at his shadow further away below him on the path?

Tick all the answers you think are right.

his shadow would be bigger
his shadow would be fatter
EDDIE SAYS
When the object making the shadow moves further from the surface where the shadow is falling, the shadow gets bigger and thus fatter. Go on, you try it: hold your hand in front of the light so it falls on paper - now move the paper further from your hand ... see?
• Question 10

As you know the Sun moves across the sky during the day. As it does so the shape of the shadows it makes changes.

Here are five pictures of a house, its shadow changing with the position of the Sun in the sky:

Match the picture to the time of day you think it represents according to where the Sun is and the shape of its shadow. By the way, you're looking south!

## Column B

A
15:00/3pm
B
09:00/9am
C
18:00/6pm
D
12:00/12pm
E
06:00/6am
EDDIE SAYS
Looking south the Sun rises in the east (on the left) and works its way across the sky from there - notice how the shadow changes accordingly.
• Question 11

Frank is out for a walk. On his walk he sees a fine cedar tree.

Which of these drawings shows correctly the way that Frank is able to see the tree.

OR...

OR...

NB: Light rays are shown by a line with an arrowhead in it, which shows the direction the light is travelling in.

A
EDDIE SAYS
A is correct because in order to see the tree, light must bounce/reflect off it. Some of those reflected rays reach Frank's eyes, enabling him to see the tree.
• Question 12

Some questions are hard to investigate, so scientists gather EVIDENCE, just like detectives.

Which THREE pieces of EVIDENCE do we have that the Earth is a SPHERE?

When ships sail away, the bottom half (hull) disappears first.
Ships can sail all the way around the Earth.
We have photographs taken from space.
EDDIE SAYS
So, go on - see if you can PROVE that the Earth is flat! Look at the evidence (in front of your eyes!) and see what it tells you.
• Question 13

Which TWO of these statements are true?

The Earth orbits the sun.
The moon orbits the Earth.
EDDIE SAYS
The moon orbits the Earth, which orbits the sun.
• Question 14

Once upon a time people believed that the sun moved across the sky during the day. We now know that...

The sun APPEARS to move because the Earth spins.
EDDIE SAYS
The sun appears to move across the sky because the Earth spins, or ROTATES in space. So, it appears above the eastern horizon as the spinning Earth rolls and the sun comes into view. The sun does spin, because it's a big ball of gas!
• Question 15

A day is a measure of how long it takes the Earth to...

rotate once
EDDIE SAYS
The Earth spins completely on its axis once every 24 hours.
• Question 16

Objects that allow electricity to pass along them are called what?

conductors
EDDIE SAYS
Conductors (you used to get them on buses and they still look after the orchestra!) are materials that allow electricity to flow through them. What sort of things are conductors? All will be revealed....
• Question 17

Which of the following materials do not allow current through them (tick all the ones that don't)?

wooden spoon
plastic paperclip
paper cup
EDDIE SAYS
Wood, plastic and paper are all insulators and don't conduct electric current. Silver spoons and door keys are made of metal (a good conductor) and well done if you knew that pencil lead (made of a type of carbon called GRAPHITE) is also a conductor (although not as good as a metal).
• Question 18

Look at this circuit and decide what is happening:

nothing happens
EDDIE SAYS
Is this circuit complete? The answer is "no" which must mean that no electric current will flow. This circuit is not working.
• Question 19

Match the symbol to what it represents:

## Column B

W
bulb
X
cell
Y
motor
Z
buzzer
EDDIE SAYS
These are some of the first electrical symbols you need to learn along with switches and batteries (of several cells).
• Question 20

In this circuit what happens when the switch is closed?

both turn on
EDDIE SAYS
This is a series circuit: it's a continuous loop. That means that the current has to flow around everything once the switch is closed, so both the bulb and the motor will be on.
• Question 21

Look at this circuit carefully:

Which one of the following descriptions of how the circuit works is correct?

when both switches are closed both the buzzer and the bulb turn on
EDDIE SAYS
This is an example of an AND circuit: when switches S1 AND S2 are closed the current flows around the circuit - and both the buzzer and bulb receive current so they work (it's a series circuit).
• Question 22

Gravity is an important force that attracts all objects on our planet - but where does it attract them to?

towards the centre of the Earth
EDDIE SAYS
Most things will drop "down" to the floor (the surface of the Earth) but what if there was a big hole in the floor - will they keep going? Of course! In Mexico there is the Cave of Swallows, the deepest vertical cave in the world and you could parachute all the way to the bottom - nearly half a kilometre! Gravity's still pulling you down there, so ... it will continue to do so to the centre of the Earth.
• Question 23

What sort of force is air resistance?

a pushing force
EDDIE SAYS
Air resistance acts against the direction in which the object is moving, so it is a pushing force.
• Question 24

When an object is falling which direction does air resistance act in?

upwards
EDDIE SAYS
Air resistance on a falling object acts in the opposite direction to gravity - in other words, upwards.
• Question 25

What word describes something that is shaped to go through the water with the least amount of water resistance?

streamlined
EDDIE SAYS
Something that is shaped to pass easily through water, or air, is said to be streamlined. That's because it provides a shape and surface that reduces the amount of friction (resistance) on it, so it slips through the water easily (think of a dolphin!).
• Question 26

Once he's finished his sandwich, Nathan decides it's time to do some bike maintenance.

He goes out to his bike only to discover that the front tyre's flat. He's going to need to take the front wheel off to mend the puncture.

To undo the nut holding the wheel on Nathan uses a long spanner.

Why do you think a long spanner is best for this job?

it means Nathan uses less force to undo the nut
EDDIE SAYS
With the longer spanner, Nathan will use less force to undo the nut.
• Question 27

We hear the music from instruments because the sound waves...

travel through the air
EDDIE SAYS
The vibrations made by the instrument make the air in the room vibrate. These sound waves travel to our ears through the air.
• Question 28

Choose the correct order of these three materials from FASTEST to SLOWEST in terms of speed of sound.

solid - liquid - gas
EDDIE SAYS
The density of the particles matches the speed of sound through the materials. That means that solids, with particles very close, transmit the vibrations of sound very quickly, whereas in a gas the particles have to move and hit each other to transmit the sound.
• Question 29

Which THREE of these changes to the strings change the PITCH of a stringed instrument?

thickness
length
tightness
EDDIE SAYS
A thick string vibrates more slowly, so produces a deeper pitch. The shorter a string is, the faster it vibrates and so the pitch gets higher (try it with an elastic band). Also, with an elastic band, try plucking it when it is stretched more and more and you'll hear the pitch get higher (but watch out it doesn't snap back and hit you - OUCH!).
• Question 30

Finish this sentence:

Plucking a string harder makes a......

louder sound
EDDIE SAYS
Blowing harder, hitting harder, or plucking harder produces LOUDER sounds. That's because the vibrations are BIGGER (not faster or slower) and so the sound is louder.
• Question 31

Here is a buzzer connected to a cell and a switch:

When the switch is closed the buzzer makes a noise. Why do you think it does?

the switch connected the buzzer and the cell together
EDDIE SAYS
In order to complete the circuit so there are no gaps you have to close the switch. Now the cell can push current around the entire circuit and so the buzzer sounds.
• Question 32

Ali connected a 1.5V battery to a 1.5V bulb and the bulb glowed with normal brightness.

Ali then started to add more 1.5V batteries to the circuit, in series with his first battery. He noticed that the bulb glowed brighter.

If Ali keeps on adding batteries what do you think will happen?

the filament in the bulb will burn out
EDDIE SAYS
Basically as Ali keeps on adding batteries the current increases until it is so high that the bulb 'blows', or goes out, because the tiny wire filament inside has melted. The filament is what 'glows' inside a standard bulb because the electric current is making it hot. If the current makes it too hot, the wire melts.
• Question 33

Imagine you have connected a bulb and a cell together and the bulb lights.

Next you add another bulb to your circuit. What will happen to the brightness of the two bulbs?

they will be dimmer
EDDIE SAYS
The electrical energy from one battery is shared between two bulbs, making each one dimmer.
• Question 34

Now you change your circuit again: you connect one bulb and two batteries.

Which statement BEST describes the brightness of the bulb?

very bright
EDDIE SAYS
The greater the electrical energy, the brighter the bulb.
• Question 35

Finally you build a circuit with one bulb and one battery. The bulb glows.

Next you add a motor to this circuit. Now the bulb does not glow and the motor does not work.

What is the best solution?

connect another battery
EDDIE SAYS
If there is not enough energy, the devices will not work. This explains why large kitchen appliances work on mains electricity because it is VERY POWERFUL. We MUST NEVER USE MAINS ELECTRICITY in our investigations!
---- OR ----

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