A food web or food chain gives us information about what organisms eat. Animals that hunt and eat other animals are predators, whereas prey is the animal that gets eaten. Predators have adaptations that allow them to catch their prey, whereas the prey has adaptations to avoid being eaten.
Have a look at the following pictures of animals. Can you tell whether they are a predator or a prey?
Both predators and prey have good eyesight and have such a colour so they blend in with the background environment; we say, they camouflage. Predators have forward facing eyes, while prey animals have eyes that allow them to look around them. Predators have hooked beaks or sharp teeth and claws and extreme speed. Prey animals have speed as well, so they can run away and large ears to listen for danger.
Birds have different types of beaks depending on what they eat. Long beaks allow search for shellfish in the sand. Flat beaks help sift out weed and small snails from water. Short, pointed beaks help to catch insects in the air and thick, strong beaks help to crash seeds.
Some organisms are decomposers, because they feed on dead plants and animals.
Have a look at this food chain:
grass → oryx → lion
The three organisms make three different energy levels; they are called trophic levels. Very little energy passes from one level to another. Only 10% of the energy the grass provides actually passes to the oryx when it eats the grass, and much less passes to the lion.