# Temperature and its Effects on Particles

In this worksheet, students will learn how changes in temperature affect the internal energy of materials by changing the motion and spacing of particles.

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: The Particulate Nature of Matter

Curriculum subtopic:  Properties of Solids, Liquids and Gases

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

Kinetic energy is associated with movement; the more kinetic energy you have, the faster and further you move, especially when you are a particle! Therefore, heat flows in a substance, because particles collide (bump onto each other) and transfer the heat energy to one another. Heat energy changes to kinetic energy, which makes particles move even faster. The transfer of heat in this way is called conduction.

Conduction is the relationship between heating and movement of the particles. Collisions occur when particles bump onto each other as they vibrate or move.

Particles in solids are closer to each other than particles in liquids and gases. Therefore, solids are better at conducting heat than liquids and gases.

When materials gain thermal energy (heat), they expand, because their particles have more kinetic energy to move further. When the temperature drops, materials contract.

In all the above mentioned changes, it is important to remember that the mass of the material is conserved, i.e. no matter is added or taken away at any point. The changes take place within the existing number of particles.

Which state of matter has particles closest together?

solids

liquids

gases

What is the link between arrangement of particles and whether something is good at conducting?

The closer together particles are, the better the material is at conducting heat and electricity.

The further apart particles are, the better the material is at conducting heat and electricity.

There is no link between arrangement of particles and conduction of heat and electricity.

Two teams of students are acting out how the particles in solids and liquids pass on their energy from one particle to another.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how hard the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

What was the energetic boy on Team A and Team B trying to simulate?

a particle with low energy

a particle with high energy

a particle out of line with the others

Have another look at the descriptions of each team.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

Which team represented a liquid being heated?

A

B

Another team, Team C, are going to enact how a gas might conduct heat energy.

Suggest how the team might do this.

The team members would not touch each other and would not collide with each other.

The team members would not touch each other but would collide with each other.

Some roads are made of concrete. The concrete is laid in sections with small gaps between them.

When the temperature rises, what might happen to the sections of concrete if there are no gaps between them? Tick three options.

shrink

burn

crack

break

melt

bend

What is the reason the pieces of concrete will crack, break or bend in the previous question?

expansion

contraction

Have another look at the diagram.

When the temperature rises, what will happen to the gaps between the concrete sections?

stay the same

get smaller

get bigger

What would happen to the same pieces of concrete when the temperature drops?

expansion

contraction

nothing

The gaps between the concrete sections are filled with tar. The tar becomes soft when it is warm.

Why is it important that the tar becomes soft?

to melt and flow

to freeze and shrink

to melt so it becomes stable

• Question 1

Which state of matter has particles closest together?

solids
EDDIE SAYS
Particles are closest together in solids.
• Question 2

What is the link between arrangement of particles and whether something is good at conducting?

The closer together particles are, the better the material is at conducting heat and electricity.
EDDIE SAYS
When particles are close together, it is easier for energy transfer from one particle to another. The closer, the better.
• Question 3

Two teams of students are acting out how the particles in solids and liquids pass on their energy from one particle to another.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how hard the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

What was the energetic boy on Team A and Team B trying to simulate?

a particle with high energy
EDDIE SAYS
The energetic boy was simulating a particle with high energy.
• Question 4

Have another look at the descriptions of each team.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

Which team represented a liquid being heated?

B
EDDIE SAYS
Team A shows how heat energy is passed along the solid from particle to particle. Hot particles vibrate more and knock adjacent particles, passing the movement along the solid.
Team B showed how in a liquid, particles are not as close and therefore pass heat slower.
• Question 5

Another team, Team C, are going to enact how a gas might conduct heat energy.

Suggest how the team might do this.

The team members would not touch each other but would collide with each other.
EDDIE SAYS
The team would not touch each other but move around slowly in a random pattern. One of them could move about faster and try to bump into the others causing them to move.
• Question 6

Some roads are made of concrete. The concrete is laid in sections with small gaps between them.

When the temperature rises, what might happen to the sections of concrete if there are no gaps between them? Tick three options.

crack
break
bend
EDDIE SAYS
The pieces of concrete will crack, break or bend.
• Question 7

What is the reason the pieces of concrete will crack, break or bend in the previous question?

expansion
EDDIE SAYS
When materials gain thermal energy (heat), they expand, because their particles have more kinetic energy to move further.
• Question 8

Have another look at the diagram.

When the temperature rises, what will happen to the gaps between the concrete sections?

get smaller
EDDIE SAYS
They will get smaller as the concrete sections get bigger (expansion).
• Question 9

What would happen to the same pieces of concrete when the temperature drops?

contraction
EDDIE SAYS
The pieces of concrete would contract, as they would have less thermal energy and subsequently less kinetic energy.
• Question 10

The gaps between the concrete sections are filled with tar. The tar becomes soft when it is warm.

Why is it important that the tar becomes soft?

to melt and flow
EDDIE SAYS
So the tar melts and flows when the gaps get smaller, so that the gaps can shrink.
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