# End of key stage 3 Science Assessment: Physics

In this assessment, students will review their understanding of various topics across the Physics programmes of study at Key Stage 3. It may take approximately 60 minutes to complete.

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:   End of Key Stage Assessments

Curriculum subtopic:   Starter Assessment

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

In this assessment, we'll review your understanding of Physics at key stage 3. This is a timed activity and will take approximately 60 minutes to complete. Don't worry if it takes longer.

What is the everyday term used to quantify energy in food?

calories

joules

Calculate the energy transferred to a 500 W appliance over 3 hours.

1500 kWh

1.5 kWh

4.5 kWh

A standard light bulb uses 50 J of energy every second. 30 J of this energy is wasted as heat.

What is the efficiency of this light bulb?

40%

100%

160%

Electrical appliances have an energy label on them (like the one shown below) so that consumers can see how energy efficient the product is before they buy it.

Which TWO of the following should you do to ensure that all electrical appliances are as energy efficient as possible?

switch off at the wall when not in use

leave on standby when not in use

only boil the volume of water required in kettle

Which of the following are types of energy?

thermal

kinetic

plastic

metal

gravitational

A car engine converts chemical energy stored in petrol or diesel into kinetic energy to move the car, and thermal energy and sound energy are also produced.

Which TWO of the following types of energy is wasted energy produced by the car engine?

chemical

sound

kinetic

heat

What is the unit of the energy transferred to electrical appliances by mains electricity?

J

W

kWh

When a hot and a cold object are in contact, heat transfers from the hot to the cold one. Why?

Heat transfers to balance out the different temperatures, i.e. until they are the same.

Heat transfers to balance out the different temperatures, i.e. until they are very different.

No, heat transfers from a cold object to a hot one.

Heat transfers until one object burns.

Calculate the speed in m/s if the distance is 2 km (1 km = 1000 m) and the time is 100 s.

20 km/s

0.02 m/s

20 m/s

What information do you get from this graph when the line is straight and going up?

Tick two options.

The vehicle is speeding up.

The vehicle is not moving.

The vehicle is moving away from the starting point.

A brother and sister play on a see-saw as seen in the cartoon. What are the conditions needed to balance the see-saw?

total clockwise moment = total anticlockwise moment

total clockwise moment > total anticlockwise moment

total clockwise moment < total anticlockwise moment

What happens to the force of a spring as it stretches?

It increases.

It decreases.

It stays the same.

The diagram shows the forces acting on an aeroplane while it is flying. Think of another name for drag.

water resistance

air resistance

upthrust

Name the numerical scale you would see displayed on a force meter.

Metre

Newton

Joule

What happens to atmospheric pressure at high altitudes?

increases

decreases

stays the same

What happens to water pressure as the depth of the sea increases?

increases

decreases

stays the same

Why would you hurt yourself if you pushed a pin on its pointy end?

The force would concentrate on the tip of the pointy part of the pin.

The pressure on the pointy end is smaller.

The diagram shows forces acting on a car while it is moving. Which one of these forces represents the friction between the tyres and the road surface?

What is an echo?

a reflected sound

an annoying noise

an ultrasound

What does sound travel by?

bouncing

vibration

floating

How does a sound wave pass through a material?

One vibrating particle gets away and we can hear it.

One vibrating particle loses the sound energy.

One vibrating particle touches another.

Apart from speed, tick three other differences between light waves and waves in matter.

Light waves can travel in a vacuum.

Light waves have much smaller wavelengths.

Light waves have longer wavelengths.

Waves in matter only travel in particles and are not emitted by them.

Waves in matter can travel in a vacuum.

Complete the sentence by selecting one of the options below:

The angle of incidence is always ________  the angle of reflection.

smaller than

equal to

bigger than

What happens when light goes from one medium to another that is denser than the first; for example, from air to water?

it slows down

it speeds up

nothing

What does the lens in our eyes do?

It sends a tiny upside-down image to the retina.

It sends a big upright image to the retina.

It sends a tiny upside-down image to the brain.

Select the primary colours from the list below.

red

magneta

cyan

blue

green

yellow

Here are three circuits:

Imagine that the switches in all the circuits have been closed.

Tick which bulbs are on now that the switches have been closed.

A

B

C

D

E

F

How is voltage in a circuit provided?

chemicals in the light bulb

chemicals in the wires

chemicals in the cell

In a series circuit made using one bulb and one battery, which TWO variables will make the bulb dimmer?

using short, thick wires

using long, thin wires

What is the simplest way to move electrons from one material to another?

Rub them against each other.

Physically move electrons from one material to another.

Heat them up and let electrons flow between them.

What is an electric field?

the area around an electrically-charged object

the area inside an electrically-charged object

In the answer box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

If two magnets were placed near each other with their North poles almost touching, they would __________.

How do you think you could see the magnetic field?

You can view it under the microscope.

You can sprinkle iron filings around the magnet.

You can see it through a camera.

You can test two magnets and see if it works.

What is the difference between an electromagnet and an ordinary magnet?

They have different sizes.

They have different names.

They do not have the same colour.

The electromagnet works only when electricity is on.

Tick the statement that describes what happens to particles in a liquid when they are heated to their boiling point.

Particles start moving more slowly and freeze.

Particles gain energy to move faster and further, so they escape from the liquid.

Particles lose energy and the liquid evaporates.

Particles move faster and condense into a liquid.

What is the main difference between chemical and physical changes?

Physical changes are irreversible.

Physical changes are reversible.

Physical changes have new atoms formed.

Match the state of matter with the correct particle arrangement. If you can't see the entire sentence in the box, hover your mouse over it.

## Column B

solid
particles are close together in a random pattern
liquid
particles are held fixed together by strong bonds
gas

Where does gravity pull us to?

towards the centre of the Earth

upwards

downwards

What causes seasons?

The Earth is tilted on its axis.

The hemisphere closer to the Sun has summer.

The Sun is lower in the sky in the summer.

How do we measure distances between stars?

in miles

in light years

in kilometres

• Question 1

What is the everyday term used to quantify energy in food?

calories
EDDIE SAYS
Although the joule is the correct unit for energy, energy in food is measured in calories in everyday life, e.g. on TV adverts. By the way, 1 calorie = 4.2 joules.
• Question 2

Calculate the energy transferred to a 500 W appliance over 3 hours.

1.5 kWh
EDDIE SAYS
Energy transferred = 0.5 kW x 3 h = 1.5 kWh. If the power is given in W, you must divide by 1000 to get the kW, so your calculation is right.
• Question 3

A standard light bulb uses 50 J of energy every second. 30 J of this energy is wasted as heat.

What is the efficiency of this light bulb?

40%
EDDIE SAYS
Remember that ALL the energy is transferred, none ceases to exist. If 50J goes into the bulb and 30J is transferred to thermal energy, then 20J must become useful light. So, 20/50 x 100 = 40%. Nothing is 100% efficient at converting energy.
• Question 4

Electrical appliances have an energy label on them (like the one shown below) so that consumers can see how energy efficient the product is before they buy it.

Which TWO of the following should you do to ensure that all electrical appliances are as energy efficient as possible?

switch off at the wall when not in use
only boil the volume of water required in kettle
EDDIE SAYS
Electrical appliances still use energy when in standby mode and should be switched off at the wall. Kettles use lots of energy, so only boil the correct volume of water and avoid refilling it each time.
• Question 5

Which of the following are types of energy?

thermal
kinetic
gravitational
EDDIE SAYS
Energy can take many forms, but plastic and metal are materials, not energy forms.
• Question 6

A car engine converts chemical energy stored in petrol or diesel into kinetic energy to move the car, and thermal energy and sound energy are also produced.

Which TWO of the following types of energy is wasted energy produced by the car engine?

sound
heat
EDDIE SAYS
The heat energy produced can be used to heat the cabin of a car on a cold morning but it is classed as wasted energy as most of the heat produced is lost. In the same way the energy transferred from the fuel to sound is not necessary to make the car move, so effectively it is wasted energy (but car-nuts think it can sound grrreat!).
• Question 7

What is the unit of the energy transferred to electrical appliances by mains electricity?

kWh
EDDIE SAYS
The unit of electricity transferred to appliances is kilowatt-hour (kWh), i.e. the number of kilowatts of electrical energy transferred to the appliance per hour.
• Question 8

When a hot and a cold object are in contact, heat transfers from the hot to the cold one. Why?

Heat transfers to balance out the different temperatures, i.e. until they are the same.
EDDIE SAYS
There is more heat (thermal energy) in a hot object and when a hot and a cold object 'touch' each other, the particles of the hot one let heat be transferred to the particles of the cold one, so the 'cold' particles start to vibrate faster until all the particles in both objects are vibrating to the same extent, so we say they have reached equality in temperature.
• Question 9

Calculate the speed in m/s if the distance is 2 km (1 km = 1000 m) and the time is 100 s.

20 m/s
EDDIE SAYS
Speed = distance/time = 2000 (m)/100 s = 20 m/s. Note that I had to convert km into m first, because I was asked to calculate the speed in m/s.
• Question 10

What information do you get from this graph when the line is straight and going up?

Tick two options.

The vehicle is moving away from the starting point.
EDDIE SAYS
When the line is straight and going up, the speed is steady and the vehicle is moving away from the starting point.
• Question 11

A brother and sister play on a see-saw as seen in the cartoon. What are the conditions needed to balance the see-saw?

total clockwise moment = total anticlockwise moment
EDDIE SAYS
In order for the see-saw to balance, the total clockwise moment must be equal to the total anticlockwise moment. That means that brother's weight x distance he sits from the fulcrum (pivot) = sister's weight x her distance from the fulcrum.
• Question 12

What happens to the force of a spring as it stretches?

It increases.
EDDIE SAYS
The force of the spring increases as it stretches. Try it with an elastic band - the more you pull on it the greater the force you can feel it exerting on you.
• Question 13

The diagram shows the forces acting on an aeroplane while it is flying. Think of another name for drag.

air resistance
EDDIE SAYS
Drag in the air is air resistance.
• Question 14

Name the numerical scale you would see displayed on a force meter.

Newton
EDDIE SAYS
The scale is in Newtons (the unit of force/weight); force meters are also called Newton meters.
• Question 15

What happens to atmospheric pressure at high altitudes?

decreases
EDDIE SAYS
The number of air particles at higher altitudes decreases, so the pressure is lower. That makes it harder to breathe on very high mountains as there are fewer oxygen molecules per breath.
• Question 16

What happens to water pressure as the depth of the sea increases?

increases
EDDIE SAYS
In liquids pressure increases with depth, so in deeper water the pressure is higher.
• Question 17

Why would you hurt yourself if you pushed a pin on its pointy end?

The force would concentrate on the tip of the pointy part of the pin.
EDDIE SAYS
The force would be concentrated on a very small area, so the pressure would be very high. Remember, to find the pressure you divide the force by the area; the area of a pin point is tiny so when it's divided into any force provided by your thumb, the pressure is very high (ouch!).
• Question 18

The diagram shows forces acting on a car while it is moving. Which one of these forces represents the friction between the tyres and the road surface?

drag
EDDIE SAYS
Another name for drag acting on a car is friction. The friction between the tyres and the road surface is what slows down the car.
• Question 19

What is an echo?

a reflected sound
EDDIE SAYS
Reflected sounds are called echoes: sound waves bounce (reflect) off a surface and then to your ears.
• Question 20

What does sound travel by?

vibration
EDDIE SAYS
Sound energy travels as a wave by vibrations.
• Question 21

How does a sound wave pass through a material?

One vibrating particle touches another.
EDDIE SAYS
Sound makes particles vibrate and the vibration is passed on when the particles touch each other, so each vibrates in turn, like a wave travelling along the material.
• Question 22

Apart from speed, tick three other differences between light waves and waves in matter.

Light waves can travel in a vacuum.
Light waves have longer wavelengths.
Waves in matter only travel in particles and are not emitted by them.
EDDIE SAYS
1) Light waves can travel in a vacuum.
2) Light waves have longer wavelengths.
3) Waves in matter only travel in particles and are not emitted by them.
• Question 23

Complete the sentence by selecting one of the options below:

The angle of incidence is always ________  the angle of reflection.

equal to
EDDIE SAYS
The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection.
• Question 24

What happens when light goes from one medium to another that is denser than the first; for example, from air to water?

it slows down
EDDIE SAYS
Light would slow down when travelling from air into water, because water is denser than air. However, if it enters water at 90 degrees, the speed of light would remain the same, but this is not specified in the third option, so it is not correct.
• Question 25

What does the lens in our eyes do?

It sends a tiny upside-down image to the retina.
EDDIE SAYS
Light goes through the lens, which sends a tiny upside-down image to the retina at the back of the eye.
• Question 26

Select the primary colours from the list below.

red
blue
green
EDDIE SAYS
The primary colours are red, green and blue.
• Question 27

Here are three circuits:

Imagine that the switches in all the circuits have been closed.

Tick which bulbs are on now that the switches have been closed.

A
B
C
D
F
EDDIE SAYS
A and B are on: their circuit is complete. Both C and D are now connected and so are on. E is off: closing the switch has 'short-circuited' it, so the current takes the route by-passing the bulb; F is still on (although brighter - but that's another story!).
• Question 28

How is voltage in a circuit provided?

chemicals in the cell
EDDIE SAYS
Voltage is provided by chemicals in cells which react to provide an electrical potential which is what drives the electrons in the wires and components around the circuit.
• Question 29

In a series circuit made using one bulb and one battery, which TWO variables will make the bulb dimmer?

using long, thin wires
EDDIE SAYS
Another bulb and long, thin wires will create more resistance to the flow of current, making the bulb dimmer.
• Question 30

What is the simplest way to move electrons from one material to another?

Rub them against each other.
EDDIE SAYS
The simplest way to move electrons from one material to another is to rub the two materials against each other as that rubbing transfers electrons according to the electric charge on the materials.
• Question 31

What is an electric field?

the area around an electrically-charged object
EDDIE SAYS
The area around an electrically-charged object is called an 'electric field'. In an electric field, materials can be attracted or repelled by each other, depending on their charge.
• Question 32

In the answer box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

If two magnets were placed near each other with their North poles almost touching, they would __________.

repel
EDDIE SAYS
The same poles always repel each other.
• Question 33

How do you think you could see the magnetic field?

You can sprinkle iron filings around the magnet.
EDDIE SAYS
The magnetic field is an invisible force-field but you can reveal it using iron filings or by using small plotting compasses, so that the shape of the field is revealed.
• Question 34

What is the difference between an electromagnet and an ordinary magnet?

The electromagnet works only when electricity is on.
EDDIE SAYS
Electromagnets work only when electricity is on and this is what makes them useful. That means the magnetism can be turned on and off!
• Question 35

Tick the statement that describes what happens to particles in a liquid when they are heated to their boiling point.

Particles gain energy to move faster and further, so they escape from the liquid.
EDDIE SAYS
This is how evaporation takes place; liquid particles gain enough energy to break free from the other particles.
• Question 36

What is the main difference between chemical and physical changes?

Physical changes are reversible.
EDDIE SAYS
Physical changes are reversible, whereas chemical changes are permanent, thus, irreversible.
• Question 37

Match the state of matter with the correct particle arrangement. If you can't see the entire sentence in the box, hover your mouse over it.

## Column B

solid
particles are held fixed together...
liquid
particles are close together in a...
gas
EDDIE SAYS
The three particle arrangements give the three states of matter their properties.
• Question 38

Where does gravity pull us to?

towards the centre of the Earth
EDDIE SAYS
Gravity on Earth pulls us towards the centre of the Earth.
• Question 39

What causes seasons?

The Earth is tilted on its axis.
EDDIE SAYS
Seasons exist because the Earth is tilted on its axis.
• Question 40

How do we measure distances between stars?

in light years
EDDIE SAYS
Distances between stars are measured in light years, i.e. the distance that light travels in a year. These distances are so big that units like km become almost meaningless.
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