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Understand the Different Tissues in the Leaf

In this worksheet, students will study tissues within the leaf - relating structures to functions.

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

By now we should know that all living things are made of cells, and that groups of cells make up a tissue and that groups of tissues make up organs. You may have even looked at different organ systems in the human body, like the digestive system and the organ system. Well, there are also these groups of cells, tissues and organs in plants as well. The main one that we all know because it is the most obvious is the plant organs – the leaf.

 

So, how to plants and humans differ?

 

Plants have a different set of tissues:

  • epidermal; which covers the plant and does a similar job to our skin
  • mesophyll; responsible for photosynthesis (there are two types!)
  • xylem and phloem; which carry food and water through the plant

 

Let’s look at these in more detail now:

The epidermal tissues surround the plant and stops it from getting harmed by pathogens (bacteria, viruses and fungus). It also stops harm from other things, like caterpillars – some epidermal tissues are even poisonous (like rhubarb leaves) or contain hairs that sting (like stinging nettles).

 

Next, we have the mesophyll. This is where most of the photosynthesis happens, can you remember what photosynthesis needs to happen? It needs light, water and carbon dioxide. So, at the top of the leaf, there are a load of photosynthesis cells that look like a fence to make the most of the sunlight. We call this the palisade mesophyll (palisade...like a fence).

Underneath this, we have the spongy mesophyll. Remember, in order photosynthsise a plant needs carbon dioxide.  Well, that carbon dioxide needs to get to the palisade mesophyll, and it does this through the spongy mesophyll. There are loads of air pockets in order to get that carbon dioxide in and get rid of the oxygen.

Stomata (small openings) let carbon dioxide diffuse into the leaf for photosynthesis and let water out into the atmosphere. They can open and close – it’s pretty amazing!

 

That leaves us with the Xylem and Phloem. The Xylem is responsible for moving water through a plant through a process called Transpiration. This is just like a plants version of sucking on a straw. Plants let water out of their leaves and that in turn sucks water up from the roots so it can reach the leaves and be used in photosynthesis. The Phloem moves sugars and minerals around the plant in a process that is called Translocation. I know, they sound similar, but it is important that you know the difference, it is a popular question for most exam boards.

 

So that’s the leaf – now take a look at the image and get to know it before you try the questions!

 

What do specialised cells with similar structure and function form?

cells tissues __________ organ systems organism

 

 

Write the missing word in the answer box below.

What does the mesophyll tissue do?

Transpiration

Translocation

Photosynthesis

What tissue performs translocation. 

Xylem

Phloem

Epidermal

What two parts of the leaf are adapted to help carbon dioxide flow into the plant and oxygen flow out? 

Epidermis

Xylem

Phloem

Stomata

Spongy mesophyll

What tissue covers the plant?

Cuticle

Epidermal

Xylem

Phloem

What is the name of the small openings on a leaf's surface?

Cuticle

Chloroplasts

Stomata

Which cells are mainly responsible for photosynthesis?

Mesophyll

Palisade

Phloem

What does the xylem provide to the plant so that it can do photosynthesis? 

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

Water

Which tissues carry food and minerals along the plant? 

Epidermal

Phloem

Cuticle

Xylem

What is the movement of minerals in the plant called? 

  • Question 1

What do specialised cells with similar structure and function form?

CORRECT ANSWER
Tissues
EDDIE SAYS
Specialised cells with similar structure and function group together to form tissues.
  • Question 2

cells tissues __________ organ systems organism

 

 

Write the missing word in the answer box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
Organs
EDDIE SAYS
Tissues form organs and organs form organ systems, which then form the complete organism.
  • Question 3

What does the mesophyll tissue do?

CORRECT ANSWER
Photosynthesis
EDDIE SAYS
All types of mesophyll tissues are there to help photosynthesis happen. Loads of chloroplasts to get all up in their photosynthesis.
  • Question 4

What tissue performs translocation. 

CORRECT ANSWER
Phloem
EDDIE SAYS
Translocation = Phloem Transpiration = Xylem There isn't an easy way to remember these two, maybe you can think of one for us all!
  • Question 5

What two parts of the leaf are adapted to help carbon dioxide flow into the plant and oxygen flow out? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Stomata
Spongy mesophyll
EDDIE SAYS
Stomata are the holes in the bottom of the leaf so that the air can flow in and out. Spongy Mesophyll is the layer that allows the air to pass to the palisade mesophyll where it can be used in photosynthesis.
  • Question 6

What tissue covers the plant?

CORRECT ANSWER
Epidermal
EDDIE SAYS
The epidermis (epidermal tissue) is a thin, transparent layer of cells which allow more light to reach the palisade cells.
  • Question 7

What is the name of the small openings on a leaf's surface?

CORRECT ANSWER
Stomata
EDDIE SAYS
The small openings on a leaf's surface are called stomata. They let air into and out of the leaf.
  • Question 8

Which cells are mainly responsible for photosynthesis?

CORRECT ANSWER
Palisade
EDDIE SAYS
Photosynthesis takes place in the palisade cells, which contain the chloroplasts that absorb light.
  • Question 9

What does the xylem provide to the plant so that it can do photosynthesis? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Water
EDDIE SAYS
Water is provided to the plant via the xylem in a process called transpiration so that the plant can perform photosynthesis using that water.
  • Question 10

Which tissues carry food and minerals along the plant? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Phloem
EDDIE SAYS
Phloem carries food and minerals along the plant.
  • Question 11

What is the movement of minerals in the plant called? 

CORRECT ANSWER
translocation
EDDIE SAYS
Remember your translocation and your transpiration! Don't get them confused! Minerals and food is translocation. Well done, we hope you're now 'leaving' more confident than you were before you started this activity!
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