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Understand the Different Tissues in the Leaf

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

By now we should know that all living things are made of cells, and that groups of cells make up a tissue and that groups of tissues make up organs. You may have even looked at different organ systems in the human body, like the digestive system. Well, these groups of cells, tissues and organs are found in plants as well. The main one that we all know, because it is the most obvious, is the plant organs such as the leaf.

 

How do plants and humans differ?

 

Plants have a different set of tissues:

Epidermal - which covers the plant and does a similar job to our skin.

Mesophyll - responsible for photosynthesis (there are two types!).

Xylem and phloem - which carry food and water through the plant.

 

Let’s look at these in more detail now:

The epidermal tissues surround the plant and stop it from getting harmed by pathogens (bacteria, viruses and fungus). They also prevent harm from other things, like caterpillars – some epidermal tissues are even poisonous (like rhubarb leaves), or contain hairs that sting (like stinging nettles).

 

Next, we have the mesophyll. This is where most of the photosynthesis happens. Can you remember what photosynthesis needs for it to happen? It needs light, water and carbon dioxide. So, at the top of the leaf there are a load of photosynthesis cells that look like a fence to make the most of the sunlight. We call this the palisade mesophyll (palisade...like a fence).

Underneath this, we have the spongy mesophyll. Remember, in order to be able to photosynthsise a plant needs carbon dioxide.  Well, that carbon dioxide needs to get to the palisade mesophyll, and it does this through the spongy mesophyll. There are loads of air pockets in order to get that carbon dioxide in and get rid of the oxygen.

Stomata (small openings) let carbon dioxide diffuse into the leaf for photosynthesis and let water out into the atmosphere. They can open and close – it’s pretty amazing!

 

That leaves us with the xylem and phloem. The xylem are responsible for moving water through a plant by a process called transpiration. This is just like a plant's version of sucking on a straw. Plants let water out of their leaves and that, in turn, sucks water up from the roots so it can reach the leaves and be used in photosynthesis. The phloem move sugars and minerals around the plant in a process that is called translocation. I know they sound similar but it is important that you know the difference - it is a popular question for most exam boards.

 

So that’s the leaf – now take a look at the image and get to know it before you try the questions!

 

What do specialised cells with similar structures and functions form?

cells tissues __________ organ systems organism

 

 

Write the missing word in the answer box below.

What does the mesophyll tissue do?

Transpiration

Translocation

Photosynthesis

What tissue performs translocation. 

Xylem

Phloem

Epidermal

Which parts of the leaf are adapted to help carbon dioxide flow into the plant and oxygen flow out? 

Epidermis

Xylem

Phloem

Stomata

Spongy mesophyll

What is the name of the tissue that covers a plant?

Mesophyll

Epidermal

Xylem

Phloem

What is the name of the small openings on a leaf's surface?

Cuticle

Chloroplasts

Stomata

Which cells are mainly responsible for photosynthesis?

Mesophyll

Palisade

Phloem

What does the xylem provide the plant with so that it can do photosynthesis? 

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

Water

Which tissues carry food and minerals along the plant? 

Epidermal

Phloem

Cuticle

Xylem

What is the movement of minerals in the plant called? 

  • Question 1

What do specialised cells with similar structures and functions form?

CORRECT ANSWER
tissues
a tissue
tissue
EDDIE SAYS
How was this for the first question - did you get it correct? Specialised cells with similar structures and functions group together to form tissues. These then group together to make organs which, in turn, group together to make organ systems. It is really important to know the way these all relate to each other.
  • Question 2

cells tissues __________ organ systems organism

 

 

Write the missing word in the answer box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
Organs
EDDIE SAYS
Tissues form organs, and organs form organ systems, which then form the complete organism. Simple!
  • Question 3

What does the mesophyll tissue do?

CORRECT ANSWER
Photosynthesis
EDDIE SAYS
Some tricky words here - don't worry if you can't remember what they all mean, it's a good moment to look them up and find out! All types of mesophyll tissues are there to help photosynthesis happen. They contain loads of chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll to use for photosynthesis.
  • Question 4

What tissue performs translocation. 

CORRECT ANSWER
Phloem
EDDIE SAYS
Again, these words are tricky but important to learn. The phloem is used for translocation. You can remember this by the 'location' part - the phloem move sugars and minerals to a different location in the plant! The xylem is used for transpiration. You can remember this by the 'spir' part of the word, which is like the word 'spire' which goes up! Water goes up from the roots in the process of transpiration!
  • Question 5

Which parts of the leaf are adapted to help carbon dioxide flow into the plant and oxygen flow out? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Stomata
Spongy mesophyll
EDDIE SAYS
Are you getting to grips with all these tricky words and their meanings yet? Stomata are the holes in the bottom of the leaf through which air can flow in and out. Spongy mesophyll is the layer that allows the air to pass to the palisade mesophyll, where it can be used in photosynthesis.
  • Question 6

What is the name of the tissue that covers a plant?

CORRECT ANSWER
Epidermal
EDDIE SAYS
The epidermis (epidermal tissue) is a thin, transparent layer of cells which allows more light to reach the palisade cells to be used for photosynthesis.
  • Question 7

What is the name of the small openings on a leaf's surface?

CORRECT ANSWER
Stomata
EDDIE SAYS
The small openings on a leaf's surface are called stomata. They let carbon dioxide into the leaf and water vapour out of it.
  • Question 8

Which cells are mainly responsible for photosynthesis?

CORRECT ANSWER
Palisade
EDDIE SAYS
Did you choose mesophyll here because that is the area where photosynthesis takes place? You're correct in that sense but the question asked for the name of the cells and these are the palisade cells that are in the mesophyll. Photosynthesis takes place in the palisade cells, which contain the chloroplasts that absorb light.
  • Question 9

What does the xylem provide the plant with so that it can do photosynthesis? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Water
EDDIE SAYS
Water is given to the plant via the xylem in a process called transpiration so that the plant can perform photosynthesis using that water. Remember, transpiration takes the water up from the roots (just as a 'spire' goes up!)
  • Question 10

Which tissues carry food and minerals along the plant? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Phloem
EDDIE SAYS
Phloem carry food and minerals through the plant. Did you get this one? The word 'phloem' sounds like 'flowing' which is how the food and minerals move - does that make it easier to remember?
  • Question 11

What is the movement of minerals in the plant called? 

CORRECT ANSWER
translocation
EDDIE SAYS
Remember your translocation and your transpiration! Don't get them confused! In translocation, the food and minerals are moved - they change their 'location'! In transpiration, water goes up the plant from the roots - just as a 'spire' goes up! Well done, we hope you're feeling more confident than you were before you started this activity!
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