The smart way to improve grades

Comprehensive & curriculum aligned

Affordable pricing from £10/month

Connect Key Features and Functions of Cell Specialisation

In this worksheet, students will connect key cell features and their functions.

'Connect Key Features and Functions of Cell Specialisation' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

GCSE Subjects:   Biology: Single Subject, Biology: Combined Science

GCSE Boards:   Pearson Edexcel

Curriculum topic:   Cells and Control

Curriculum subtopic:   Cells and Control

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Living things or organisms are made up of cells. Some organisms may be made up of just a single cell (unicellular) like bacteria, whereas others are made up of many cells like a plant. Some cells have particular jobs they need to carry out and are called specialised cells.  We will be looking into this more closely below!

 

Picture of a sperm cell

 

SPERM CELL - The job or function of the sperm cell is to fertilise an egg cell. The head of the sperm cell called the acrosome contains enzymes which help the sperm cell to break down the outer membrane of the egg cell and then penetrate the egg cell. Once it penetrates the egg the genetic material in the haploid sperm cell can combine with the genetic material of the haploid egg cell. This is known as fertilisation. Eggciting stuff! The sperm cell is also suited to its job by having a tail to allow it to swim towards the egg. It uses the energy provided by the mitochondria to power the tail.

 

Image of an egg cell

 

Egg cell - Similar to the sperm cell, the nucleus of the egg cell is also haploid. This means when it is fertilised by the sperm cell the zygote which is formed, will get a full set of chromosomes (46). The cytoplasm of the egg cell contains lots of nutrients. This is essential for the early growth of the embryo. Once fertilisation occurs the cell membrane of the egg becomes impermeable so it doesn't allow any more sperm to enter the egg cell and interfere with the growth of the embryo.

 

Image of a ciliated cell

 

Ciliated epithelial cells - They have tiny hair-like projections called cilia that move in a wave-like motion. These cells are usually found in our breathing passages like our trachea and nose. The cilia sweep mucus, dust and bacteria up our trachea where it can be swallowed or spat out. Lovely!

 

In the following activity, you will be asked to connect the key features of specialised cells with their functions.

The nucleus of our body cells contain 46 chromosomes, they are diploid. The nucleus of a sperm cell has 23 chromosomes. What is the term that refers to half the full set of chromosomes?

Image of an egg cell

 

The egg cell is quite large in comparison to a sperm cell and contains nutrients in the cytoplasm. What is the purpose of the size of the cell and nutrients in the cytoplasm?

Large size to allow many sperm cells to fertilise it

Nutrients to support the developing embryo

Nutrients to provide the sperm with energy

Large size to allow quick repeated cell division as the embryo grows

Image of egg and sperm cell

 

When an egg cell is fertilised by a sperm cell the cell membrane of the egg cell changes and becomes impermeable. Why does this happen? 

To stop any more sperm cells from trying to enter the egg cell

To stop any bacteria from entering the egg cell

To stop any nutrients from being lost from the egg cell

Infertility in males may occur because of sperm abnormalities. Some of the sperm may have an abnormal tail, such as being too short and crooked. Explain why this abnormality can lead to infertility.

The short crooked tail allows it to swim towards the egg cell at a normal pace

The short crooked tail allows the sperm cell to swim faster than normal towards the egg cell

​The short crooked tail stops the tail from moving as fast towards the egg

Image of a ciliated cell

 

Our body has special cells with hair-like structures called cilia that sweep mucus and bacteria out of our airways. The mucus is often directed to our stomachs.

Stomach acid will destroy any bacteria trapped in the mucus

The stomach will store the mucus and trapped bacteria

The stomach will mix the bacteria with our food, weakening the bacteria

Image of a ciliated cell

 

Ciliated cells and sperm cells have lots of mitochondria present in the cytoplasm. What function do these two cells have in common?

Cilia moves by using energy from respiration released by the mitochondria

Cilia doesn't need energy to move

The sperms tail moves by using energy from respiration released by the mitochondria

Sperm cell doesn't need energy to move

Smoking cigarettes is known to have an effect on the cilia in your airways. The cilia may become destroyed by the chemicals found in cigarettes. How might this affect the smoker?

The smoker may have more infections

The smoker will have a build up of mucus that will be difficult to remove

The smoker will have less infections

Compare the structure of egg, sperm and ciliated cells.

 Sperm cellEgg cellCiliated cell
Haploid
Diploid
Tail
Nutrient stores
Cilia
Acrosome
Mitochondria for movement

Picture of a sperm cell

 

Specialised cells are cells with a specific function or role. The function of a sperm cell is to fertilise an egg cell. What part of the sperm cell is essential for fertilisation? 

Nucleus

Tail

Enzymes

Picture of a sperm cell

 

Describe how mitochondria, the long tail of the sperm cell and the acrosome help the sperm cell to do its job. 

Moving the tail makes the sperm cell stronger

The tail allows it to swim towards the egg cell

The mitochondria gives the sperm cell nutrition for movement

The acrosome contains enzymes that breaks down the outer membrane of the egg

The acrosome provides energy for movement

The mitochondria provides energy for movement

  • Question 1

The nucleus of our body cells contain 46 chromosomes, they are diploid. The nucleus of a sperm cell has 23 chromosomes. What is the term that refers to half the full set of chromosomes?

CORRECT ANSWER
Haploid
Haploids
Haploid cells
EDDIE SAYS
All of our body cells contain a full set of 46 chromosomes, except our egg or sperm cells. They're haploid so contain half the number of chromosomes, so 23 chromosomes. To help you remember, HAploid refers to HAlf.
  • Question 2

Image of an egg cell

 

The egg cell is quite large in comparison to a sperm cell and contains nutrients in the cytoplasm. What is the purpose of the size of the cell and nutrients in the cytoplasm?

CORRECT ANSWER
Nutrients to support the developing embryo
Large size to allow quick repeated cell division as the embryo grows
EDDIE SAYS
When an egg is fertilised by a sperm cell a zygote is formed. The large size of the egg allows the zygote to divide rapidly to eventually form an embryo. It's the embryo that will use the nutrients in the cytoplasm to aid growth and development.
  • Question 3

Image of egg and sperm cell

 

When an egg cell is fertilised by a sperm cell the cell membrane of the egg cell changes and becomes impermeable. Why does this happen? 

CORRECT ANSWER
To stop any more sperm cells from trying to enter the egg cell
EDDIE SAYS
The egg cell becomes impermeable to other sperm cells once it's fertilised. This is so that the process of fertilisation can occur undisturbed without further sperm cells entering the egg cell.
  • Question 4

Infertility in males may occur because of sperm abnormalities. Some of the sperm may have an abnormal tail, such as being too short and crooked. Explain why this abnormality can lead to infertility.

CORRECT ANSWER
​The short crooked tail stops the tail from moving as fast towards the egg
EDDIE SAYS
Male infertility can be caused by a number of reasons, one of the reasons being sperm cells being deformed. The sperm cell relies on its powerful long tail to swim quickly towards the egg cell. If the tail of the sperm cell is deformed it will slow down the sperms speed and may not be able to fertilise the egg.
  • Question 5

Image of a ciliated cell

 

Our body has special cells with hair-like structures called cilia that sweep mucus and bacteria out of our airways. The mucus is often directed to our stomachs.

CORRECT ANSWER
Stomach acid will destroy any bacteria trapped in the mucus
EDDIE SAYS
Ciliated cells are super important. They move like waves and sweep out bacteria that are trapped in mucus. The mucus is wafted up the trachea and often swallowed where our stomach acid will destroy the bacteria. This is one way our body protects us from illness.
  • Question 6

Image of a ciliated cell

 

Ciliated cells and sperm cells have lots of mitochondria present in the cytoplasm. What function do these two cells have in common?

CORRECT ANSWER
Cilia moves by using energy from respiration released by the mitochondria
The sperms tail moves by using energy from respiration released by the mitochondria
EDDIE SAYS
Both the cilia and sperm cells move. They both need energy for this process which is supplied by the mitochondria following respiration. Remember the ciliated cell doesn't actually move but the cilia do- the cilia are the hair-like structure.
  • Question 7

Smoking cigarettes is known to have an effect on the cilia in your airways. The cilia may become destroyed by the chemicals found in cigarettes. How might this affect the smoker?

CORRECT ANSWER
The smoker may have more infections
The smoker will have a build up of mucus that will be difficult to remove
EDDIE SAYS
The chemicals in a cigarette can damage the cilia in our airways. This means that the mucus formed in our airways will be harder to remove (smokers coughs are usually quite harsh sounding because of this). It also means the bacteria trapped in the mucus will stay longer in our bodies causing a higher risk of infection.
  • Question 8

Compare the structure of egg, sperm and ciliated cells.

CORRECT ANSWER
 Sperm cellEgg cellCiliated cell
Haploid
Diploid
Tail
Nutrient stores
Cilia
Acrosome
Mitochondria for movement
EDDIE SAYS
A quick summary of the main features of egg, sperm and ciliated cells.
  • Question 9

Picture of a sperm cell

 

Specialised cells are cells with a specific function or role. The function of a sperm cell is to fertilise an egg cell. What part of the sperm cell is essential for fertilisation? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Nucleus
EDDIE SAYS
Fertilisation is when the sperm cells genetic material combines with the egg cells genetic material. The genetic material is found in the nucleus of the sperm cell and is haploid, which means it contains half the full set of chromosomes. When this happens a zygote is formed, eventually, this will grow to be an unborn baby.
  • Question 10

Picture of a sperm cell

 

Describe how mitochondria, the long tail of the sperm cell and the acrosome help the sperm cell to do its job. 

CORRECT ANSWER
The tail allows it to swim towards the egg cell
The acrosome contains enzymes that breaks down the outer membrane of the egg
The mitochondria provides energy for movement
EDDIE SAYS
Mitochondria release energy during respiration. This energy is used to move the sperm's tail so that it can swim towards the egg. The acrosome also helps by using its enzymes to break down the outer membrane of the egg. The sperm cell can now enter the egg cell and fertilisation can happen.
---- OR ----

Sign up for a £1 trial so you can track and measure your child's progress on this activity.

What is EdPlace?

We're your National Curriculum aligned online education content provider helping each child succeed in English, maths and science from year 1 to GCSE. With an EdPlace account you’ll be able to track and measure progress, helping each child achieve their best. We build confidence and attainment by personalising each child’s learning at a level that suits them.

Get started
laptop

Start your £1 trial today.
Subscribe from £10/month.