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Healthy Living

In this worksheet, students will examine the importance of a healthy lifestyle in order to minimise the occurrence of illness and disease.

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

It is important to remain as healthy as you can. The human body is designed to be constantly on the move as we have evolved from hunter-gatherers. This means that our bodies are able to store energy very well when we are resting, ready for our next session of marathon running (which early humans used to do all of the time). So, when you are sitting down - your body assumes that it will be running a marathon soon, so it stores as much energy as it can. if you never run that marathon, it will keep on storing the energy and in turn, making you more and more unhealthy. In this activity, we will be looking at how you can work with your body to keep it healthy and not let it hurt itself (because we don't all run marathons - they are hard).

 

Our body releases energy during respiration. Respiration is a chemical reaction that uses oxygen from breathing and glucose from food. The products of this chemical reaction are carbon dioxide and water and our body lets them out. This is the chemical equation of respiration:

glucose + oxygen   carbon dioxide + water (+energy)

 

Respiration that uses oxygen is called aerobic, but it can also take place without oxygen, in which case it is called anaerobic. You can tell when your body goes into anaerobic respiration during intensive exercise because your muscles ache from the production of lactic acid the next day. 

 

 It is really important for our health and longevity that we maintain a healthy lifestyle and do as much exercise as possible. Exercise combined with a balanced diet and no smoking or excessive alcohol ensures our blood pressure remains normal, and we lower the probability of getting a disease or illness. Normal blood pressure levels for an adult are 110-125 mmHg for the systolic pressure (the maximum pressure our heart produces) and 60-70 for the diastolic pressure (the blood pressure between heartbeats). 

 

A balanced diet consists of all types of food but less salt, sugar and fat. The pyramid below shows the different types of food and how much we should be eating. Study it carefully because many questions will be based on it.

 

Food groups pyramid.

 

Red meat, chicken, fish, as well as pulses (beans, lentils, chickpeas) provide protein necessary for growth and repair. Rice, bread and pasta provide carbohydrates for energy. Fruit and vegetable provide vitamins and minerals. It is worth noting the importance of fibre in cereals, fruit and vegetable, necessary for a healthy digestive system and water, which makes up most of our body.

What is the normal diastolic pressure for adults?

90-100 mmHg

110-125 mmHg

180-200 mmHg

What does the body need to release energy? Tick two boxes.

Water

Carbon dioxide

Oxygen

Blood

Glucose

Tick two statements that describe a healthy lifestyle.

Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables

Eat only carbohydrates

Do as much exercise as possible

Eat lots of sweets for glucose

Match the food with the type of nutrient it provides.

Column A

Column B

bread
vitamin
eggs
fat
cheese
fibre
oats
protein
kale
carbohydrate
chocolate
chocolate

A middle aged woman visits the doctor and complains about irregular heartbeat. She fills in a questionnaire the doctor gave her and her answers reveal that she smokes 10 cigarettes a day, drinks 1 unit of alcohol per week, does not exercise and drinks a lot of fizzy drinks. She also admits she avoids eating fruit and vegetables.

 

Tick four statements that show the advice the doctor would give her.

To exercise at least three times a week

To reduce her alcohol intake

To reduce the amount of fizzy drinks and even avoid them completely

To stop smoking

To eat plenty of fruit and vegetable

To smoke more cigarettes

The BMI (Body Mass Index) shows if someone is underweight, normal, overweight or obese. The graph shows the different categories.

 

The BMI index chart

 

Calculate the BMI of a person that has a mass of 87 kg and a height of 1.7m Use the formula below:

the BMI calculation

 

Then determine what category they belong to.

Underweight

OK

Overweight

Obese

Protein (unlike fat!) cannot be stored or made by the body. The main blocks of protein are called amino acids. Kwashiorkor is a condition where the body cannot absorb excess water from body tissues and the abdomen so the belly swells up and that's due to lack of food.

 

Where are we most likely to find this condition?

 

Australia

Africa

America

Europe

Some people have special diets:

  • Muslims eat only halal meat
  • Jews do not eat pork (Muslims don't either)
  • some people don't eat nuts or other things because they are allergic to them
  • vegetarians do not eat any meat or fish (but some eat fish only)
  • vegans do not eat any animal products (not even cheese or eggs!)

 

Tick four statements that explain the diets above.

They are forced to eat like that

For religious reasons

So as not to get an allergic reaction that may even lead to death

Because they don't like the taste of meat (or the any food they do not eat)

Because it is expensive

Because they do not agree with killing animals for food

There is a recommended daily amount (RDA) of protein we should all eat. You can calculate it using this formula:

RDA (in g)  =   0.75 x body mass (in kg)

 

Calculate the RDA of a person that has a mass of 87 kg. Your answer should be in grams (but just write the number).

Too much fat is generally not good, but there are some fatty foods that we should eat regularly, like oily fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel), nuts and seeds, sunflower and olive oil, avocado. Meat also contains fat.

 

From your general knowledge and common sense, tick two types of meat that contain a lot of fat from the options below.

Bacon

Lean beef

Chicken

Sausage

  • Question 1

What is the normal diastolic pressure for adults?

CORRECT ANSWER
110-125 mmHg
EDDIE SAYS
The normal diastolic blood pressure for adults is 110-125 mmHg. This is the pressure in your arteries when your heart is pumping - healthy arteries able to flex around the blood as it passes through them, but unhealthy ones become stiff and unable to flex around the blood, increasing the blood pressure.
  • Question 2

What does the body need to release energy? Tick two boxes.

CORRECT ANSWER
Oxygen
Glucose
EDDIE SAYS
The body needs oxygen and glucose to perform respiration which releases energy for all our activities. The blood goes to the lungs to pick up oxygen and the liver to pick up glucose - it then drops these off where they are needed in cells so they can react to make energy for the cell to perform its function.
  • Question 3

Tick two statements that describe a healthy lifestyle.

CORRECT ANSWER
Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables
Do as much exercise as possible
EDDIE SAYS
In order to maintain a healthy lifestyle, we need to eat normal portions of all food types, but reduce our intake of fat and sugar. Exercise is necessary as well. Remember - our bodies are designed to run marathons, we are the fastest animal on the earth over 26 miles. It's how we used to catch things like deer before we developed ranged weapons.
  • Question 4

Match the food with the type of nutrient it provides.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

bread
carbohydrate
eggs
protein
cheese
fat
oats
fibre
kale
vitamin
chocolate
chocolate
EDDIE SAYS
Bread is a carbohydrate.
Eggs provide protein.
Cheese provides protein but also contains fat.
Oats provide fibre.
Kale contains a huge number of vitamins
Chocolate contains lots of sugar.
  • Question 5

A middle aged woman visits the doctor and complains about irregular heartbeat. She fills in a questionnaire the doctor gave her and her answers reveal that she smokes 10 cigarettes a day, drinks 1 unit of alcohol per week, does not exercise and drinks a lot of fizzy drinks. She also admits she avoids eating fruit and vegetables.

 

Tick four statements that show the advice the doctor would give her.

CORRECT ANSWER
To exercise at least three times a week
To reduce the amount of fizzy drinks and even avoid them completely
To stop smoking
To eat plenty of fruit and vegetable
EDDIE SAYS
This woman needs to reduce or stop smoking, to reduce or stop drinking fizzy drinks, to eat fruit and vegetable and to exercise. All of these are factors that will affect her health - if she continues living like this then she will increase her risk of becoming unhealthy.
  • Question 6

The BMI (Body Mass Index) shows if someone is underweight, normal, overweight or obese. The graph shows the different categories.

 

The BMI index chart

 

Calculate the BMI of a person that has a mass of 87 kg and a height of 1.7m Use the formula below:

the BMI calculation

 

Then determine what category they belong to.

CORRECT ANSWER
Overweight
EDDIE SAYS
After doing the calculation the person is overweight which you can see by matching their height and mass on the chart. 87/1.7 = 51
  • Question 7

Protein (unlike fat!) cannot be stored or made by the body. The main blocks of protein are called amino acids. Kwashiorkor is a condition where the body cannot absorb excess water from body tissues and the abdomen so the belly swells up and that's due to lack of food.

 

Where are we most likely to find this condition?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
Africa
EDDIE SAYS
In some parts of the African continent, there is famine due to lack of resources, crop failure because of drought and overcrowding, so, unfortunately, some children suffer from Kwashiorkor.
  • Question 8

Some people have special diets:

  • Muslims eat only halal meat
  • Jews do not eat pork (Muslims don't either)
  • some people don't eat nuts or other things because they are allergic to them
  • vegetarians do not eat any meat or fish (but some eat fish only)
  • vegans do not eat any animal products (not even cheese or eggs!)

 

Tick four statements that explain the diets above.

CORRECT ANSWER
For religious reasons
So as not to get an allergic reaction that may even lead to death
Because they don't like the taste of meat (or the any food they do not eat)
Because they do not agree with killing animals for food
EDDIE SAYS
In questions, you have to read through all of the statements and use your judgement to decide which ones are the best. If you don't know - guess! However - in this question, there are clues that you could use to find the answer. It talks about religion, allergies, and food choices. Find the answers with those in them and you'll be on your way to getting the right answer.
  • Question 9

There is a recommended daily amount (RDA) of protein we should all eat. You can calculate it using this formula:

RDA (in g)  =   0.75 x body mass (in kg)

 

Calculate the RDA of a person that has a mass of 87 kg. Your answer should be in grams (but just write the number).

CORRECT ANSWER
65.25
EDDIE SAYS
Multiply 87 with 0.75 87x0.75 = 65.25
  • Question 10

Too much fat is generally not good, but there are some fatty foods that we should eat regularly, like oily fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel), nuts and seeds, sunflower and olive oil, avocado. Meat also contains fat.

 

From your general knowledge and common sense, tick two types of meat that contain a lot of fat from the options below.

CORRECT ANSWER
Bacon
Sausage
EDDIE SAYS
Sausages and bacon contain a lot of fat, so it is best to avoid them. They are good for you if you intend to run a marathon in the next few days - or as a treat once in a while, just not all of the time.
---- OR ----

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