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Describe Coronary Heart Disease and How it Can Be Treated

In this worksheet, students will describe coronary heart disease and how it can be treated.

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of death in the UK.

CHD is caused by fatty material building up inside the arteries supplying the heart. Over time this reduces the blood flow through the arteries, resulting in the heart muscles becoming deprived of oxygen. The heart needs glucose and oxygen to respire. Through respiration, energy is released which is used to contract the heart muscle allowing blood to be pumped around the body. Without glucose and oxygen, heart cells may eventually die which can lead to a heart attack. 

Image of the coronary artery in the heart

There are many possible risks that can lead to CHD such as a poor diet that is high in 'bad' fat, stress and smoking which increases blood pressure. Often certain lifestyle changes can be made in order to lower the risk of getting CHD.

However, for someone who may have CHD, there are different ways to treat it. Let's look at this further below.

Statins

Image of medicine

Statins are a group of medicines that work to lower the level of cholesterol in your blood. Too much cholesterol in your blood can lead to fatty deposits building up in your arteries.

Advantages

  • Taking statins is a relatively easy way to lower cholesterol

Disadvantages

  • Statins may lead to unwanted side effects such as headaches, muscular pain and nausea
  • Statins have to be taken on a long-term basis

Stents

A stent is a small mesh tube that is used to widen arteries that are narrowed, blocked or weakened. The collapsed stent is put in the artery with a balloon inside it, the balloon is then inflated and the stent increases in size and the blood flow through the artery is increased

image of heart disease and stent

Advantages

  • The success rate is high
  • Stents lower the risk of a heart attack
  • They last for a long time.

Disadvantages

  • Complications like bleeding, irregular heartbeat and infection.
  • Arteries sometimes re-close
  • Drugs need to be taken to stop blood clotting

Coronary artery bypass

Coronary artery bypass is a surgical procedure that can be used to treat CHD.  Often the procedures mentioned above would be tried first before resorting to bypass surgery.

Image of bypass surgery

In coronary artery bypass, blood is diverted around the blocked arteries so the rest of the heart gets a good supply of oxygen. Often a blood vessel from another part of the body is attached near to the blocked artery supplying your heart. Having a bypass might reduce the chances of having a heart attack. 

Advantages

  • improvement of symptoms like chest pain or breathlessness

Disadvantages

  • risk of complications during surgery

Heart Valve Disease 

Veins have valves to stop the blood flowing in the wrong direction, so the blood flows in the correct direction in the heart. If the valve doesn't close properly, blood will move back into the heart. This can put great strain on the heart as it then has to work harder to pump the much-needed blood around the body. Sufferers may feel unusually tired and constantly out of breath.

Image of veins

Some people might be born with heart valve disease while others may have it as a side effect from a heart attack. The faulty valves can be replaced with mechanical valves made from man-made material such as metal, or biological valves which are made from human or animal tissue.

Advantages

  • The success rate is high- they prolong the life of patients
  • the new valve can last up to 20 years

Disadvantages

  • May need to have blood thinners to stop clotting
  • There is always a risk of serious complications with surgery

Heart failure

Heart failure is a serious condition that tends to get worse over time and can lead to death. It's often the result of many different problems affecting the heart like those mentioned above. The heart often becomes very weak and can no longer pump blood around the body. In these cases, a donor heart can be transplanted. This means a healthy heart from a person who's recently died will replace the patient's damaged heart.

 Artificial hearts have been used temporarily to keep people alive while they wait for a heart transplant. The artificial heart is not living so needs a power source, early power sources were so large that the patient had to stay in hospital.  New advances mean that the patient can now use portable power supply and can go home.

Advantages

· The artificial heart is not rejected by the body

· Keeps the patient alive while waiting for a transplant

Disadvantages

· Surgery can lead to bleeding and infection.

·  Blood does not flow as easily and can lead to clots so blood thinners need to be taken.

· Parts of the heart can wear out or stop working.

In the following activity, you will describe coronary heart disease and how it can be treated.

Image of veins

Faulty valve disease can cause a lot of strain on the heart.

How can faulty valve disease be treated? Select two answers. 

 

 

Faulty valves can be replaced with a stent

Faulty valves can be replaced with biological valves

Faulty valves can be replaced with mechanical valves

What are some of the risks of having a stent to treat CHD? Select two answers.

 

 

Arteries will widen

Arteries might reclose

Blood will flow easier

Bleeding can occur

Artificial hearts have been used temporarily to keep people alive while they wait for a heart transplant. 

Describe how an artificial heart is different from a normal heart. Select two answers.

 

The artificial heart needs an external power supply

The artificial heart has ventricles and atria

There are tubes that come outside the body

Image of the aorta labelled on heart

What is a heart transplant and why is it needed for? Fill in the blanks to answer this question

 

 

The artificial heart needs an external power supply

The artificial heart has ventricles and atria

There are tubes that come outside the body

The vena cava is the largest vein in the body. It carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

How are veins like the vena cava suited to their function? Select one answer below.

 

Veins contain valves which prevent the back flow of blood

Veins have thick muscular walls

Veins are only one cell thick

Image of bypass surgery
Coronary artery bypass is a procedure used to treat coronary heart disease.
What happens in a coronary artery bypass? Select one answer.
Blood is supplied around the blocked artery the rest of the heart gets a good supply of oxygen

A tube is inserted into the block artery to widen it

Medication is taken to unblock the arteries

Image of medicine

What are the group of medications called that are used to lower blood cholesterol levels? Type one answer below. 

Veins have valves to stop blood flowing in the wrong direction. If the valve doesn't close properly, blood will move back into the heart. 

Image of veins

Describe some of the symptoms of a faulty valve.

Select one answer in each row.

Coronary heart disease is one of the major causes of death in the UKDescribe this disease by matching up the sentences below.

Column A

Column B

Coronary heart disease is caused by fatty material...
...die which can lead to a heart attack.
This reduces the blood flow through the arteries r...
...up inside the arteries supplying the heart.
Through respiration, energy is released which...
...in the heart muscles becoming deprived of oxyge...
Without glucose and oxygen, heart cells may eventu...
...which is used to contract the heart muscle allo...

image of heart disease and stent

A stent is sometimes used to treat coronary heart disease. What is the purpose of a stent? Select one answer below.

It's a medication used to lower cholesterol in the blood

It's a small tube used to widen narrowed, blocked or weakened arteries

Its a artificial valve to make sure blood flows in the right direction

  • Question 1

Image of veins

Faulty valve disease can cause a lot of strain on the heart.

How can faulty valve disease be treated? Select two answers. 

 

 

CORRECT ANSWER
Faulty valves can be replaced with biological valves
Faulty valves can be replaced with mechanical valves
EDDIE SAYS
Replacing faulty valves has a high success rate. This means that sufferers can be relieved of symptoms for quite some time, increasing their quality of life.
  • Question 2

What are some of the risks of having a stent to treat CHD? Select two answers.

 

 

CORRECT ANSWER
Arteries might reclose
Bleeding can occur
EDDIE SAYS
Complications can arise in any treatment. Doctors will weigh up risks and benefits to the patient before suggesting any treatment.
  • Question 3

Artificial hearts have been used temporarily to keep people alive while they wait for a heart transplant. 

Describe how an artificial heart is different from a normal heart. Select two answers.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
The artificial heart needs an external power supply
There are tubes that come outside the body
EDDIE SAYS
Artificial hearts can be the bridge to fill the gap between a patient receiving a donor's heart. It can prolong the patient’s life whilst waiting for a heart transplant.
  • Question 4

Image of the aorta labelled on heart

What is a heart transplant and why is it needed for? Fill in the blanks to answer this question

 

 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Often people who have heart transplants are those who have severe issues with their heart and other medical treatments aren't helping.
  • Question 5

The vena cava is the largest vein in the body. It carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

How are veins like the vena cava suited to their function? Select one answer below.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
Veins contain valves which prevent the back flow of blood
EDDIE SAYS
Try to remember: Veins contain Valves! Veins carry blood towards the heart which is the opposite direction to arteries.
  • Question 6
Image of bypass surgery
Coronary artery bypass is a procedure used to treat coronary heart disease.
What happens in a coronary artery bypass? Select one answer.
CORRECT ANSWER
Blood is supplied around the blocked artery the rest of the heart gets a good supply of oxygen
EDDIE SAYS
Coronary artery bypass is a major surgical procedure. It's often carried out if other treatments haven't worked or aren't suitable.
  • Question 7

Image of medicine

What are the group of medications called that are used to lower blood cholesterol levels? Type one answer below. 

CORRECT ANSWER
statins
statin
EDDIE SAYS
Cholesterol is a fat that's needed by the body for important structures like cell membranes. However, too much cholesterol can lead to fatty deposits in the arteries of the heart.
  • Question 8

Veins have valves to stop blood flowing in the wrong direction. If the valve doesn't close properly, blood will move back into the heart. 

Image of veins

Describe some of the symptoms of a faulty valve.

Select one answer in each row.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The heart has to work extra hard to pump blood around the body. This is because of backflow of blood into the heart causing oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to be mixed up.
  • Question 9

Coronary heart disease is one of the major causes of death in the UKDescribe this disease by matching up the sentences below.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

Coronary heart disease is caused ...
...up inside the arteries supplyi...
This reduces the blood flow throu...
...in the heart muscles becoming ...
Through respiration, energy is re...
...which is used to contract the ...
Without glucose and oxygen, heart...
...die which can lead to a heart ...
EDDIE SAYS
Anything obstructing blood flow in the arteries of the heart can be problematic. The heart has to work extra hard to overcome the obstructions, often resulting in damage to the heart.
  • Question 10

image of heart disease and stent

A stent is sometimes used to treat coronary heart disease. What is the purpose of a stent? Select one answer below.

CORRECT ANSWER
It's a small tube used to widen narrowed, blocked or weakened arteries
EDDIE SAYS
Stents have helped many people with CHD. They last a long time in the body and have prevented many heart attacks.
---- OR ----

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