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Group 1

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

One of the amazing things about the periodic table is that it shows you patterns in the elements – for example, all the group 1 metals react similarly when exposed to water. There are some very good reasons for these reactions to do with how the electrons line up in the atoms. Here we will be looking at Group 1 on the periodic table, and some of the fascinating properties that they have.

 

Group One elements in the periodic table are called the alkali metals. They are lithium, sodium, potassium, caesium and rubidium. Can you find them on a periodic table? They are all called group 1 elements because they all have just one electron in their outer shell. Just take a look at their electrons structure below. 

 

 

They all react vigorously with air and water, so they must be stored in oil to stop air or water getting to them – it could cause an explosion. 


Sodium is more reactive than lithium, and potassium is more reactive than sodium. You can tell, because potassium reacts extremely vigorously and quickly with water, whereas, lithium less quickly and vigorously.  As for caesium and rubidium - their reaction is.... explosive! So, you might have noticed by now that as you go down the periodic table you are increasing the reactiveness of the elements.


“But why are they called the alkali metals” I hear you cry from the rooftops. Well- fear not, the answer is here! Here is the general chemical equation, what do you notice about the second side?


metal + water  metal hydroxide + hydrogen

 

Well, any time something is called a hydroxide, it is an alkali – so when the group 1 metals react with water, they form an alkali and hydrogen. Hence the term alkali metal.


So, if we where reacting lithium with water, it would look like this

 

Lithium + water  lithium hydroxide + hydrogen.

 

And if we were to use potassium instead, it would look like this:

 

potassium + water  potassium hydroxide + hydrogen.

 

Get the picture?

 

There are other patterns that you need to remember as well – take a look at them:

 

Metal Softness Colour Reaction with oxygen Reaction with chlorine
Lithium (Li) Hard to cut with a knife. Grey colour, sliver when cut. Makes Li2O (Lithium oxide) Makes LiCl (Lithium chloride)
Sodium (Na) Softer, easy to cut with a knife White colour, sliver when cut.  Makes Na2O (Sodium oxide) Makes NaCl (Sodium chloride)
Potassium (K) Very soft - can be squeezed in tweezers.  Grey, silver when cut. Makes K2O (Potassium oxide) Makes KCl (Potassium chloride)

 

What is the other name for Group One elements?

Alkali metals

Halogens

Transition metals

Which is the least reactive alkali metal?

Potassium

Cesium

Lithium

Sodium

Tick two products of the reaction of lithium with water.

Carbon dioxide

Hydrogen

Lithium

Lithium hydroxide

How many electrons are in the outer shell of a group 1 element? 

1

2

3

4

Select the two reactants of the reaction that produces lithium chloride.

Lithium

Potassium

Iodine

Chlorine

What is the correct symbol for sodium oxide? 

NaO

KO

Na2O

K2O

What is the correct symbol for potassium chloride? 

KO

KCl

K2Cl

Which of these alkali metals is the softest? 

Li

K

Na

Complete this equation:

 

Potassium + water ___________ + hydrogen

Potassium oxide

Potassium hydroxide

Potassium chloride

Complete this equation:

 

K + H2_________ + _________

NaOH + H2

KOH + 2

KOH2 + H2

  • Question 1

What is the other name for Group One elements?

CORRECT ANSWER
Alkali metals
EDDIE SAYS
Group 1 elements are called Alkali Metals. They are called this because they make an alkali when they react with water.
  • Question 2

Which is the least reactive alkali metal?

CORRECT ANSWER
Lithium
EDDIE SAYS
Lithium is the least reactive alkali metal. Caesium is the most reactive metal. We know this because the ones at the top of the periodic table are less reactive and when we go down we get more reactive.
  • Question 3

Tick two products of the reaction of lithium with water.

CORRECT ANSWER
Hydrogen
Lithium hydroxide
EDDIE SAYS
Two products of the reaction of lithium with water are hydrogen and lithium hydroxide. Remember the general equation of metal + water -> metal hydroxide + hydrogen. Just replace the word metal with the group 1 metal you are using!
  • Question 4

How many electrons are in the outer shell of a group 1 element? 

CORRECT ANSWER
1
EDDIE SAYS
Group 1 elements are called group 1 because they all have 1 electron in their outer shell. 1 electron, group1. it's one of those rare times that science actually makes sense.
  • Question 5

Select the two reactants of the reaction that produces lithium chloride.

CORRECT ANSWER
Lithium
Chlorine
EDDIE SAYS
In order to get lithium chloride, one must react lithium and chlorine. You can tell by the name of the product, which is a combination of lithium and chlorine.
  • Question 6

What is the correct symbol for sodium oxide? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Na2O
EDDIE SAYS
Group 1 elements always make a product that is metal with a little 2 and then oxygen. You will learn why when you look at Ionic bonding.
  • Question 7

What is the correct symbol for potassium chloride? 

CORRECT ANSWER
KCl
EDDIE SAYS
When group 1 reacts with chlorine, you will always get the metal symbol followed by Cl without any numbers. You will learn why this happens when you look at ionic bonding.
  • Question 8

Which of these alkali metals is the softest? 

CORRECT ANSWER
K
EDDIE SAYS
As you go down the group, the metals become softer. Be careful though, I have put in a red herring here - they are not in the correct order!
  • Question 9

Complete this equation:

 

Potassium + water ___________ + hydrogen

CORRECT ANSWER
Potassium hydroxide
EDDIE SAYS
Remember the general equation: metal + water -> metal hydroxide + hydrogen.
  • Question 10

Complete this equation:

 

K + H2_________ + _________

CORRECT ANSWER
KOH + 2
EDDIE SAYS
That's right, you need to know the symbols as well! We are so mean, right? Hydroxide symbols are Metal and the OH (hydrogen and oxygen or hydroxide).
---- OR ----

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