# Recall Energy Stores

In this worksheet, students will be looking into the stores of energy and how they can be transferred.

Key stage:  KS 4

GCSE Boards:   AQA, AQA Trilogy, OCR 21st Century, OCR Gateway, Pearson Edexcel, Eduqas

Curriculum topic:   Energy, Sustainable Energy, Conservation of Energy

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

If you drop a hammer and a feather on the moon, what'll happen? If you drink tea that is too hot, what'll happen? If you stand in front of a jet engine while it's running, what'll happen? All these questions have one thing in common – they all involve energy moving from one store to another.

This is what we'll be looking at – how energy moves from store to store. By the end of the activity, you should be able to name the common energy stores and describe situations where energy is changing from one store to another.

So, let’s dive in!

What is energy?

Put simply, energy is the potential for something to do work. If you have energy stored, then you can move, or heat up, or make sound, or anything else. But you need the energy stored in a particular store first.

What are energy stores?

This is just a name we give to the way that energy is stored in different situations. Below, are listed all of the stores of energy you'll be expected to know, and an example of a situation where you would find that store of energy.

 Name of energy store What it is An example of where you would find it KINETIC Energy stored in movement. Throwing a pen at your sister - the pen stores energy as kinetic. It gained this energy from the store of chemical energy in your muscles. SOUND Energy stored in sound. The yelp from your sister when she gets hit by the pen, and the clank of the pen when it hits the floor. This energy has come from the kinetic energy stored by the pen when it was moving and then is stored as sound  before that sound hits your ears. GRAVITATIONAL Energy stored depending on the height above ground level When the pen falls to the ground, its store of gravitational energy is going down (it is getting closer to the ground) and this store of energy is going into kinetic energy. HEAT Energy stored in heat. When the pen hits the ground, it has to get rid of its kinetic energy - and it does this by vibrating the particles within the pen, storing energy as heat. Whenever something hits something and stops, heat is generated. ELECTRICAL Energy stored in the movement of electricity. When you get revenge on your brother by giving him a clicky pen with an electric shock in it. The store of electrical energy passes from the pen into your brother, giving him a shock. LIGHT Energy stored as the movement of photons (more on this in the waves topic) As the electricity sparks through the air, some of the energy moves to give off light. This light energy then gets passed into your eyes so you can see it. CHEMICAL Energy stored in chemical bonds (more on this in the endothermic and exothermic reactions activity). This is how energy is stored in your body as something called ATP (more on this in the respiration worksheet). As the ATP is used, energy is changed into sound energy  - of you laughing at your brother. NUCLEAR Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom (more on this in the atoms and particles topic) In a final act of revenge, your brother then sets off a nuclear bomb (okay... a bit dramatic). The energy is stored in the nucleus of the atom and released once a nuclear reaction happens, as light and heat.

Got it? We're now going to look at some situations and you're going to identify the energy that is being stored initially, and then what energy it will be transferred into.

For these first few questions, you're just going to identify what the store of energy is in each of these situations.

You're at the top of Oblivion at Alton Towers, about to fall down.

What store of energy do you have?

Elastic

Electrical

Gravitational

Kinetic

Heat

Here's another.  Can you identify what the store of energy is in the situation below?

You are going for a test drive in a Ferrari and they take you onto the motorway.

What is the main store of energy you have?

Sound

Light

Heat

Kinetic

Nuclear

Elastic

What's the store of energy in the situation below?

What are the stores of energy being given off?

Light

Sound

Heat

Kinetic

Gravitational

Chemical

Nuclear

Elastic

You are going for a casual bungee jump on a Saturday afternoon. For this question, there are two energy stores to identify.

When you jump (apart from being terrified), what energy store is going down?

When the bungee tightens, what energy store is increasing?

Heat

Sound

Light

Kinetic

Elastic

Nuclear

Chemical

Gravitational

In this question, you need to identify the initial store of energy in the top row, and how that energy has been released in the bottom row.

Dropping a cup so that it hits the floor and smashes.

 Light Heat Sound Kinetic Nuclear Gravitational Elastic Chemical Before the cup is dropped After the cup has been dropped

Complete this sentence:

Energy is the ability for an object to do...

Identify all of the final energy forms in this closed system.

Someone pressing a switch that turns on a light bulb.

Heat

Sound

Electrical

Light

Chemical

Nuclear

Elastic

Gravitational

A generator in a power station uses fuel and burns it to heat water. This water turns into steam and spins a turbine which is connected to a generator. The generator is a set of magnets that spin in a coil of wires to drive a current. This is how most of the non-renewable energy we use in our homes is created.

Identify all of the energy stores in the passage above.

Heat

Sound

Light

Kinetic

Electrical

Nuclear

Chemical

Gravitational

Identify all the energy stores in this situation.

Crashing a car into a wall.

Kinetic

Gravitational

Chemical

Heat

Sound

Light

Electrical

Elastic

Wasted energy happens when a new energy store is created which was not intended. For example: a fire has no wasted energy as it gives off both light and heat which are used by people.

A light bulb also gives off light and heat, but it is not designed to give off heat (you wouldn't try to heat your room with one) and so the heat is wasted in this situation.

What are the wasted energies in this transfer?

A computer takes in electrical energy and gives off light, heat, sound and electrical energy.

Light

Heat

Sound

Electrical

• Question 1

For these first few questions, you're just going to identify what the store of energy is in each of these situations.

You're at the top of Oblivion at Alton Towers, about to fall down.

What store of energy do you have?

Gravitational
EDDIE SAYS
When things move up and down, they gain and lose gravitational energy. If you think about it, it takes a lot of effort to walk up and down a hill - this is because of the extra energy you are putting into gravitational energy. When the roller coaster falls down the vertical drop, the stored gravitational energy will become stored as kinetic energy.
• Question 2

Here's another.  Can you identify what the store of energy is in the situation below?

You are going for a test drive in a Ferrari and they take you onto the motorway.

What is the main store of energy you have?

Kinetic
EDDIE SAYS
There were a lot to choose from here but, hopefully, you were able to eliminate a few straight away - such as elastic and nuclear! When you are driving a car, there are lots of different energy transfers happening - but the main energy will be stored as kinetic energy. This is because it takes a lot of energy to get (and keep) something moving. The sound, light and heat that are given off by the car all add up to less than the kinetic energy.
• Question 3

What's the store of energy in the situation below?

What are the stores of energy being given off?

Light
Sound
Heat
EDDIE SAYS
Did you spot it? Where it said about ticking all of the boxes that apply? That is a trick they use in exams - words in bold will gain you marks, you must pay attention to them. So, your phone will be giving off light from the screen, sound from the speakers and it will give off heat as well. Depending on how much work your phone is doing, more or less heat will be given off.
• Question 4

You are going for a casual bungee jump on a Saturday afternoon. For this question, there are two energy stores to identify.

When you jump (apart from being terrified), what energy store is going down?

When the bungee tightens, what energy store is increasing?

Elastic
Gravitational
EDDIE SAYS
Okay - a nice two-part, huh? Exams do this as well - ask two or more questions on the same topic. So, did you get it? Part 1 You are moving up and down, so the energy store that is going down is gravitational. In this case, it's turning into a store of kinetic energy. Part 2 The kinetic energy is then put into a store of elastic energy when the bungee tightens - so this energy is stored as elastic energy. Done!
• Question 5

In this question, you need to identify the initial store of energy in the top row, and how that energy has been released in the bottom row.

Dropping a cup so that it hits the floor and smashes.

 Light Heat Sound Kinetic Nuclear Gravitational Elastic Chemical Before the cup is dropped After the cup has been dropped
EDDIE SAYS
When you are holding something up high, it is storing the energy as gravitational energy. This is because you have had to do work to get it up that high. When you let go of the cup, it starts to lose that gravitational energy as it flows from the gravitational store into the kinetic energy store. From there, it hits the ground and some of the kinetic energy gets converted into sound and heat. Think about what happens in real life - after all, that is what physics is trying to describe to you.
• Question 6

Complete this sentence:

Energy is the ability for an object to do...

Work
EDDIE SAYS
In summary, work is the movement of things! Some examples are picking up coffee cups, making sounds or bungee jumping. All of these activities take work to do them. You will learn more about work in the activity on power. So, in order for you to store energy, you need to do work.
• Question 7

Identify all of the final energy forms in this closed system.

Someone pressing a switch that turns on a light bulb.

Heat
Light
EDDIE SAYS
This question is designed to test you - there are a lot of words which may confuse you. But the only parts that matter are the parts that say 'final energy forms'. This tells us that you need to look for the energy stores that are being released by the light. In all cases, it will be light and heat. Yes, light bulbs get hot!
• Question 8

A generator in a power station uses fuel and burns it to heat water. This water turns into steam and spins a turbine which is connected to a generator. The generator is a set of magnets that spin in a coil of wires to drive a current. This is how most of the non-renewable energy we use in our homes is created.

Identify all of the energy stores in the passage above.

Heat
Kinetic
Electrical
Chemical
EDDIE SAYS
Well done if you got them all! A few points to make here: It is important to refer to the stores of energy by their correct names - electrical instead of electricity, kinetic instead of movement. Scientists are quite particular about the words they use because a slight change in the word can change the meaning of what you are trying to say. There was a lot of information in the passage, but most of it was not relevant. When you are given a question like this in an exam, look for the context and then look for the stuff that relates to that context. In this question, we are looking for energy transfers, so only read the important information about energy transfers. So what energy transfers have taken place? The energy was initially stored as chemical in the fuel. When fuel is burned, that store of energy is changed into heat (for more information on how this is done, see the endothermic and exothermic activity). This heat then spins the turbine, transferring heat energy into kinetic. Finally, the turbines spin the generator which creates the electrical energy. Phew - what a lot there was to look out for in this question.
• Question 9

Identify all the energy stores in this situation.

Crashing a car into a wall.

Kinetic
Heat
Sound
Elastic
EDDIE SAYS
There were four to get this time. Did you get elastic? That's the trickiest one to identify. We know that the energy stores in this situation are definitely kinetic, heat and sound but elastic is the fourth type. The metal will bend when you crash and then it will slightly spring back to its original shape. This is elastic - it is storing energy during the deformation and then springing back, converting the stored energy back into kinetic energy.
• Question 10

Wasted energy happens when a new energy store is created which was not intended. For example: a fire has no wasted energy as it gives off both light and heat which are used by people.

A light bulb also gives off light and heat, but it is not designed to give off heat (you wouldn't try to heat your room with one) and so the heat is wasted in this situation.

What are the wasted energies in this transfer?

A computer takes in electrical energy and gives off light, heat, sound and electrical energy.

Heat
EDDIE SAYS
Electrical energy is used by the computer to make sure that it can perform the functions that we want. This is useful. Light energy is given off by the computer to display important information. The 'sound' option was a bit trickier. Some sound is wasted by the computer - we don't want to hear the fans, but we have to have them - but we do need the sound that comes from the speakers. So, the only option that was correct here was the second one. Heat is wasted, as we don't want to have a hot computer since it's not a heater! We want our computer to be cool, so this is wasted energy. How did you do? Feeling more confident with this topic now?
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