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Plant Oils, Emulsion and Hydrogenation

In this worksheet, students will study the use of plant oils and the process of emulsion and hydrogenation

'Plant Oils, Emulsion and Hydrogenation' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Structure, Bonding and the Properties of Matter

Curriculum subtopic:  Bonding of Carbon Leading to Organic Compounds

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Plants are valuable sources of chemical substances, which have many uses. Vegetable oils are an example of this. Apart from being used as oils, vegetable oils are the first material for making other food products, like margarine. They can also be used as fuels; for example, biodiesel.


Seeds, nuts and some fruit are squeezed in order to get the oil out; for example, olive oil. Some oils are a bit harder to obtain and need more processing. Vegetable oil molecules consist of glycerol and fatty acids.


Vegetable oils have a higher boiling point than water, so food is cooked differently when it is submerged in oils. They give food a different taste and, if food is cooked in them, it provides more energy. However, too much fried food is fattening and not healthy.
 

Fatty acids in vegetable oils can be saturated or unsaturated. The latter are healthier and better for our diets.

  • Saturated fatty acids have a single bond between their carbon atoms and they are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds between their carbon atoms and are liquid in room temperature.
  • Unsaturated fatty acids can be monounsaturated (with only one double bond) and polyunsaturated (with multiple double bonds). Unsaturated fats can be 'hardened' when reacting with hydrogen gas during a process called hydrogenation. This process converts the double bonds into single bonds.

 

You may already know that water and oil do not mix. A detergent helps a great deal to wash plates, because it enables oil to mix with water and be removed. Detergents are examples of emulsifiers; substances that help oil and water mix. Emulsions are mixtures of oil and water, which are used in cosmetics, paints and salad dressings. However, an emulsifier is needed to stabilise emulsions. For example, egg yolk contains a natural emulsifier, which helps bind oil and vinegar in mayonnaise.

 

Emulsifier molecules have a hydrophobic tail (water-hating), which dissolves in the oil and a hydrophilic head (water-loving), which dissolves in the water. Have a look at the diagram below, which shows the molecule of an emulsifier. They both dissolve in their 'favourite' medium, which binds them together.

 

What is the main use of vegetable oils?

 

cosmetics

cleaning

cooking

Select three source of vegetable oils.

 

paper

nuts

some fruit

grass

seeds

vegetables, such as carrots and broccoli

Select the example of plant oils mentioned in the introduction.

 

lamp oil

olive oil

crude oil

Tick two substances that vegetable oils consist of.

glycerine

glycerol

fatty acids

hydrophobic

Is the following statement true or false?

 

Saturated fatty acids have a double bond between their carbon atoms, whereas unsaturated ones have a single bond.

 

true

false

What is the process that ‘hardens’ unsaturated fats?

 

hardening

hydration

hydrogenation

Tick two examples of emulsifiers.

detergent

mayonnaise

egg yolk

vinegar

Complete the sentence by selecting one option.

 

Emulsifiers are substances…………

that contain water and oil.

that enable water and oil to mix.

that dissolve in other substances.

Is the following statement true or false?

 

Emulsifiers have a hydrophilic tail and a hydrophobic head.

true

false

What does hydrophilic mean?

water-loving

water-hating

water-dwelling

  • Question 1

What is the main use of vegetable oils?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
cooking
EDDIE SAYS
The main use of vegetable oils is in cooking.
  • Question 2

Select three source of vegetable oils.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
nuts
some fruit
seeds
EDDIE SAYS
The sources of vegetable oils are some fruit, nuts and seeds.
  • Question 3

Select the example of plant oils mentioned in the introduction.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
olive oil
EDDIE SAYS
Olive oil is a plant oil mentioned in the introduction, but there are others like sunflower and groundnut.
  • Question 4

Tick two substances that vegetable oils consist of.

CORRECT ANSWER
glycerol
fatty acids
EDDIE SAYS
Vegetable oils consist of fatty acids and glycerol.
  • Question 5

Is the following statement true or false?

 

Saturated fatty acids have a double bond between their carbon atoms, whereas unsaturated ones have a single bond.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
false
EDDIE SAYS
Saturated fatty acids have a single bond between their carbon atoms, whereas unsaturated ones have a double bond.
  • Question 6

What is the process that ‘hardens’ unsaturated fats?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
hydrogenation
EDDIE SAYS
The process that ‘hardens’ unsaturated fats is called hydrogenation.
  • Question 7

Tick two examples of emulsifiers.

CORRECT ANSWER
detergent
egg yolk
EDDIE SAYS
Detergent and egg yolk are emulsifiers, vinegar is used in mayonnaise and cannot bind easily with oil without an emulsifier.
  • Question 8

Complete the sentence by selecting one option.

 

Emulsifiers are substances…………

CORRECT ANSWER
that enable water and oil to mix.
EDDIE SAYS
Emulsifiers are substances that enable water and oil to mix.
  • Question 9

Is the following statement true or false?

 

Emulsifiers have a hydrophilic tail and a hydrophobic head.

CORRECT ANSWER
false
EDDIE SAYS
Emulsifiers have a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head.
  • Question 10

What does hydrophilic mean?

CORRECT ANSWER
water-loving
EDDIE SAYS
Hydrophilic means water-loving.
---- OR ----

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