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Oil and Its Products

In this worksheet, students study fractional distillation, the process used to separate crude oil into its different products.

'Oil and Its Products' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Chemical and Allied Industries

Curriculum subtopic:  Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil

Difficulty level:  

down

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Crude oil is one of the most important natural resources. It is finite, which means it will eventually run out, and non-renewable as it cannot be made again. It is a fossil fuel, like coal and natural gas.

Fossil fuels were made over millions of years from the remains of dead organisms that were compressed together, while trapped in the Earth. Dead animals made oil and dead plants made coal.

 


Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons (substances made of carbon and hydrogen only). In order to separate it into its components it needs to be heated through a process called fractional distillation. Here is a diagram that shows how crude oil is separated:

 

 


The component hydrocarbon molecules are long chains held together by intermolecular forces. The forces are broken while boiling.

Lighter molecules with shorter chains need less energy for the forces to be broken, so they are easily separated. They have low boiling points. An example is petrol.

Heavy molecules, like bitumen, have longer chains and more energy is needed to separate them. They have high boiling points.


As the heat in the fractional distillation tower increases, small molecules evaporate first and rise to the top, whereas heavier ones stay at the bottom.


 
More and more petrol is needed for the increasing requirements of humans, so a substance called paraffin is 'cracked' (broken down) into petrol, with the aid of high temperature and a catalyst (a chemical that speeds up the reaction but is not itself used in it).

Select two words which describe crude oil.

finite

renewable

non-renewable

hydroelectric

What type of fuel is crude oil?

engine fuel

fossil fuel

crude fuel

Is the following statement true or false?

 

Oil is made of dead plants.

true

false

Select the elements that make hydrocarbons.

 

 

hydrogen

oxygen

nitrogen

carbon

What is the name of the process used to separate crude oil into its fractions?
fractioning

fractional dissolving

fractional distillation

What type of forces hold hydrocarbon molecules together?

intercarbonary

intermolecular

intermolecule

Select the hydrocarbon with a low boiling point.

 

diesel oil

kerosene

petrol

Is the following statement true or false?

 

Hydrocarbons with longer chains have lower boiling points.

true

false

Considering your answer to Q8, why do longer chain hydrocarbons have higher or lower boiling points?

They need less energy to break.

They need more energy to break.

They do not need any energy to break.

What substance is ‘cracked’ into petrol?

naphtha

kerosene

paraffin

  • Question 1

Select two words which describe crude oil.

CORRECT ANSWER
finite
non-renewable
EDDIE SAYS
Crude oil is finite, which means it will finish eventually and non-renewable, which means it cannot be renewed.
  • Question 2

What type of fuel is crude oil?

CORRECT ANSWER
fossil fuel
EDDIE SAYS
Oil, like natural gas and coal, are fossil fuels.
  • Question 3

Is the following statement true or false?

 

Oil is made of dead plants.

CORRECT ANSWER
false
EDDIE SAYS
Oil is made of dead animals, coal is made of dead plants.
  • Question 4

Select the elements that make hydrocarbons.

 

 

CORRECT ANSWER
hydrogen
carbon
EDDIE SAYS
Hydrocarbons are made of hydrogen and carbon.
  • Question 5
What is the name of the process used to separate crude oil into its fractions?
CORRECT ANSWER
fractional distillation
EDDIE SAYS
The process used to separate crude oil into its fractions is called fractional distillation.
  • Question 6

What type of forces hold hydrocarbon molecules together?

CORRECT ANSWER
intermolecular
EDDIE SAYS
Intermolecular forces hold hydrocarbon molecules together.
  • Question 7

Select the hydrocarbon with a low boiling point.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
petrol
EDDIE SAYS
Petrol is a hydrocarbon with a low boiling point.
  • Question 8
Is the following statement true or false?

 

Hydrocarbons with longer chains have lower boiling points.

CORRECT ANSWER
false
EDDIE SAYS
Hydrocarbons with shorter chains have lower boiling points.
  • Question 9

Considering your answer to Q8, why do longer chain hydrocarbons have higher or lower boiling points?

CORRECT ANSWER
They need more energy to break.
EDDIE SAYS
Longer chain hydrocarbons have higher boiling points, because they need more energy to break.
  • Question 10

What substance is ‘cracked’ into petrol?

CORRECT ANSWER
paraffin
EDDIE SAYS
Paraffin is ‘cracked’ into petrol.
Naphtha and kerosene are both hydrocarbons and are produced during the fractional distillation of crude oil.
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