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Bonding

In this worksheet, students look at the formation of ionic and covalent bonding between atoms.

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QUESTION 1 of 10

In order to form bonds atoms need to be stable. An atom is stable when its outer shell is complete, which means when it has 2 or 8 electrons. Noble gases are very stable and do not react with other elements, because their outer shell is complete. You can see them on the far right (in grey) of the periodic table:

 

 

Ionic bonding

The atoms of the rest of the elements on the periodic table try to stabilise by filling their outer shell with some more electrons, or by getting rid of some extra ones. They get their electrons when they combine with other atoms of elements that need to get rid of some. When an atom loses electrons (which carry a negative charge), it becomes a positive ion. The atom receiving the electrons becomes a negative ion. The more electrons an atom receives, the bigger the negative charge and the more it loses, the bigger the positive charge.

Metals generally gain electrons because they have spaces in their outer shell that need to be filled, whereas non-metals give their spare electrons to metals. Positive and negative ions attract one another so the compound forms. Metal ions attract a number of other ions and form lattices. The diagram below shows the ionic bond between sodium and chlorine when they form sodium chloride.

 

 

Covalent bonding

Non-metals also form compounds together by sharing electrons. This type of bonding is covalent. The molecule of water is shown in the diagram below. The oxygen atom shares two electrons, one with each atom of hydrogen. The electrons are used by all atoms simultaneously.

 

 

In GCSE science, electrons are represented as dots or crosses and we will see examples of that in the questions. You may be asked to draw these diagrams in your exams.

What do all atoms try to do?

get more electrons

lose electrons

become stable

Which gases are very stable on their own, and are consequently less reactive?

noble

nable

aristocratic

What type of bonding is based on sharing electrons?

covalent

ionic

What type of bonding is based on giving and receiving electrons?

covalent

ionic

What is the charge of electrons?

neutral

positive

negative

What happens to an atom when it gains electrons?

it becomes neutral

it becomes a positive ion

it becomes a negative ion

What happens to an atom when it loses electrons?

it becomes neutral

it becomes a positive ion

it becomes a negative ion

 

What type of bonding is shown in the diagram above?

covalent

ionic

 

What type of bonding is shown in the diagram above?

ionic

covalent

What do metal ions form when they attract a large number of other ions?

giant structures called lattices

giant structures called lattixes

giant structures called prefixes

  • Question 1

What do all atoms try to do?

CORRECT ANSWER
become stable
EDDIE SAYS
Atoms try to be stable.
  • Question 2

Which gases are very stable on their own, and are consequently less reactive?

CORRECT ANSWER
noble
EDDIE SAYS
Noble gases have complete outer shells and so are very stable.
  • Question 3

What type of bonding is based on sharing electrons?

CORRECT ANSWER
covalent
EDDIE SAYS
In covalent bonding, atoms share electrons.
  • Question 4

What type of bonding is based on giving and receiving electrons?

CORRECT ANSWER
ionic
EDDIE SAYS
Ionic bonding is based on giving and receiving electrons.
  • Question 5

What is the charge of electrons?

CORRECT ANSWER
negative
EDDIE SAYS
Electrons have a negative charge.
  • Question 6

What happens to an atom when it gains electrons?

CORRECT ANSWER
it becomes a negative ion
EDDIE SAYS
It becomes a negative ion, as electrons carry a negative charge.
  • Question 7

What happens to an atom when it loses electrons?

CORRECT ANSWER
it becomes a positive ion
EDDIE SAYS
It becomes a positive ion, as it loses the electrons that carry a negative charge.
  • Question 8

 

What type of bonding is shown in the diagram above?

CORRECT ANSWER
covalent
EDDIE SAYS
The diagram shows the covalent bond of the carbon dioxide molecule.
  • Question 9

 

What type of bonding is shown in the diagram above?

CORRECT ANSWER
ionic
EDDIE SAYS
The diagram shows the ionic bond between Lithium and Oxygen.
  • Question 10

What do metal ions form when they attract a large number of other ions?

CORRECT ANSWER
giant structures called lattices
EDDIE SAYS
Metal ions attract other ions and form giant structures called lattices.
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