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Exam Style 6 Mark Questions Biology 1

This is a selection of exam style questions worth 6 marks each. They test biology knowledge combined with literacy skills, so spelling and grammar must be correct in order to gain full marks.

'Exam Style 6 Mark Questions Biology 1
' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  GCSE Practice Papers

Curriculum subtopic:  Biology

Difficulty level:  

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Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

This is a selection of exam style questions worth 6 marks each. They test biology knowledge combined with literacy skills, so spelling and grammar must be correct in order to gain full marks.

Read the information on each question and type your answer in the text area provided without looking at the information for each question to really test yourself.

The topics covered are all Biology from the core, additional and some triple science topics. If you are doing triple science, this paper will help you with your Biology exam.

Even if your answer in terms of scientific knowledge is fully correct, you cannot gain full marks if your literacy is not good, so you must learn those spellings and make sure your grammar and syntax are excellent.

Punnett Square

 

The DNA of organisms is found in the nucleus of their cells in the form of chromosomes. Segments of chromosomes that code for specific information, for example eye colour, are called genes.

Most characteristics of organisms are coded for by two genes, one inherited by the mother and one by the father. These two genes are called alleles and their instructions may be slightly different, even if they code for the same characteristic, e.g. a child may inherit one gene for blue eyes and one for brown eyes by the mother and father, respectively. It is worth reminding you here that we inherit half of our DNA from our father and half from our mother. This passes onto the offspring in the gametes (sex cells, sperm and egg).

Genes are symbolised as letters, any letters. In your exams, you will be given combinations of two letters for the characteristic of an organism. For example, the gene for brown eyes is B and for blue eyes, it is b (Be careful: any letters could be used, so do not be confused by the letter in an exam. Pay attention to what information is given to you). The small letter (b in our case) is recessive, which means that two of those (one from the mother and one from the father) are needed to have blue eyes; the combination would be bb. The person that has this combination is called homozygous, because he/she has two same alleles. A person with BB is also homozygous, but they have brown eyes. The capital B gene is dominant, which means it overtakes the b if they are put together, so the combination Bb would code for brown eyes, even if there is a small b there. A person with two different alleles is called heterozygous.

 

Punnett squares are used to predict what characteristics are inherited by different combinations of alleles: 

 possible gametes    

 father:


 mother:

 B
 B  BB Bb 
 b  Bb bb 

 

The Punnett square above shows what happens when a heterozygous father with brown eyes crosses with a heterozygous mother with brown eyes. The possible offspring are:

  • BB, homozygous with brown eyes 25% probability
  • Bb, heterozygous with brown eyes 50% probability
  • bb, homozygous with blue eyes 25% probability

 

Overall, there is a 25% probability that their child will have blue eyes and 75% probability that it will have brown eyes. The combination of alleles, e.g. Bb is called the genotype. The way the combination makes the organism look like is called the phenotype, i.e. Bb codes for brown eyes.

 

 

QUESTION:

The gene coding for sickle cell disease is d. A couple both with Dd genotypes had a number of children.

(a) What is the probability that they had children with sickle cell disease? Use a genetic diagram or Punnett square to aid your explanation.

Temperature 

 

QUESTION:

(a) Explain how the human body maintains a stable internal temperature when the external temperature is 0 degress Celsius.

The Carbon Cycle

 

Carbon is present in a wide variety of compounds in the carbon cycle.

 

QUESTION:

(a) Describe how carbon is cycled in the environment.

Fertilisers

 

The ever growing population on Earth demands increased provision of food and water. In order to grow food faster, farmers use fertilisers. These contain nitrates and phosphates, compounds that are needed by plants to grow well.

Too much fertiliser being used or fertilisers being washed away by rain can get into the water (streams, rivers, lakes) and raise the natural concentration of nitrates and phosphates.

High concentrations of nitrates and phosphates encourage plants and algae to grow rapidly. Surface plants and algae block sunlight, so plants in the water die as they cannot perform photosynthesis. This results in less oxygen being produced. Many animals, e.g. fish die due to lack of oxygen. Bacteria that decompose dead materials increase in numbers and use up even more oxygen from the water. This process is called eutrophication.

 

QUESTION:

(a) Explain how the use of fertilisers can lead to the death of fish in rivers and lakes.

Cloning

 

Cloning is useful to make a genetically identical copy of an organism that has desirable characteristics. Bulls with sperm, that produces high quality calves, are valuable and worth cloning. Cloning is also used to produce copies of individuals with a genetically engineered trait, for example cows engineered to produce human insulin in their milk.

There are different ways of cloning animals, but the most successful method uses a process called nuclear transfer.

The nucleus of a body cell of the animal to be cloned is transferred into an enucleated egg cell (one that has its original nucleus removed). The egg cell is then stimulated by electric shock to divide to form an embryo. The division takes place by mitosis. This is implanted into the uterus (womb) of a surrogate mother who is different to the parent who is being cloned. It then grows and develops into a new individual.

 

QUESTION:

A cloned animal contains genetic information that is identical to its parent.

(a) Describe the stages in the production of a cloned mammal.

  • Question 1

Punnett Square

 

The DNA of organisms is found in the nucleus of their cells in the form of chromosomes. Segments of chromosomes that code for specific information, for example eye colour, are called genes.

Most characteristics of organisms are coded for by two genes, one inherited by the mother and one by the father. These two genes are called alleles and their instructions may be slightly different, even if they code for the same characteristic, e.g. a child may inherit one gene for blue eyes and one for brown eyes by the mother and father, respectively. It is worth reminding you here that we inherit half of our DNA from our father and half from our mother. This passes onto the offspring in the gametes (sex cells, sperm and egg).

Genes are symbolised as letters, any letters. In your exams, you will be given combinations of two letters for the characteristic of an organism. For example, the gene for brown eyes is B and for blue eyes, it is b (Be careful: any letters could be used, so do not be confused by the letter in an exam. Pay attention to what information is given to you). The small letter (b in our case) is recessive, which means that two of those (one from the mother and one from the father) are needed to have blue eyes; the combination would be bb. The person that has this combination is called homozygous, because he/she has two same alleles. A person with BB is also homozygous, but they have brown eyes. The capital B gene is dominant, which means it overtakes the b if they are put together, so the combination Bb would code for brown eyes, even if there is a small b there. A person with two different alleles is called heterozygous.

 

Punnett squares are used to predict what characteristics are inherited by different combinations of alleles: 

 possible gametes    

 father:


 mother:

 B
 B  BB Bb 
 b  Bb bb 

 

The Punnett square above shows what happens when a heterozygous father with brown eyes crosses with a heterozygous mother with brown eyes. The possible offspring are:

  • BB, homozygous with brown eyes 25% probability
  • Bb, heterozygous with brown eyes 50% probability
  • bb, homozygous with blue eyes 25% probability

 

Overall, there is a 25% probability that their child will have blue eyes and 75% probability that it will have brown eyes. The combination of alleles, e.g. Bb is called the genotype. The way the combination makes the organism look like is called the phenotype, i.e. Bb codes for brown eyes.

 

 

QUESTION:

The gene coding for sickle cell disease is d. A couple both with Dd genotypes had a number of children.

(a) What is the probability that they had children with sickle cell disease? Use a genetic diagram or Punnett square to aid your explanation.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
In order to get full marks for this question you must draw the Punnett square and explain it as below and also explain that we get half of our genetic material from the father and half of the mother in the gametes.
You must also include in your answer that the allele for sickle cell disease is recessive and the only time the disease will manifest is when the genotype is homozygous for the recessive allele, dd.

The Punnett square:
Mother: D d
________________________
Father:
D       DD Dd
________________________
d       Dd dd

From the Punnett square the only genotype that would give sickle cell disease is dd. One in four possible offspring would have this genotype, so there is a 25% probability that their children will have sickle cell disease.
  • Question 2

Temperature 

 

QUESTION:

(a) Explain how the human body maintains a stable internal temperature when the external temperature is 0 degress Celsius.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
An explanation of thermoregulation in response to a low external temperature (1 mark for each of the following points)
  • hypothalamus detects a drop in the blood’s temperature
  • vasoconstriction
  • blood vessels near the surface of the skin constrict, reduce blood flow to the skin, reduce heat loss via radiation
  • hair erector muscles contract, raises hairs on body to trap a layer of insulating air between cold environment and body surface, reduce heat loss via conduction
  • shivering will occur, skeletal muscles contract and relax involuntarily, produces respiratory heat to warm up body
  • hypothalamus detects a rise in the blood’s temperature, reference to negative feedback
    • Question 3

    The Carbon Cycle

     

    Carbon is present in a wide variety of compounds in the carbon cycle.

     

    QUESTION:

    (a) Describe how carbon is cycled in the environment.

    CORRECT ANSWER
    EDDIE SAYS
    A description including some of the following points (1 mark for each point):
  • Photosynthetic material/plants will remove CO2 from the atmosphere.
  • These plants will use the CO2 to make glucose.
  • Plant respiration will release CO2 into the atmosphere.
  • Animals will eat the plants which contain carbon.
  • Animals and plants will eventually die and decay due to microbial/bacterial action releasing CO2.
  • The combustion/burning of fossil fuels will release CO2 into the atmosphere, the burning of carbon based products made from trees will release CO2 into the atmosphere.
    • Question 4

    Fertilisers

     

    The ever growing population on Earth demands increased provision of food and water. In order to grow food faster, farmers use fertilisers. These contain nitrates and phosphates, compounds that are needed by plants to grow well.

    Too much fertiliser being used or fertilisers being washed away by rain can get into the water (streams, rivers, lakes) and raise the natural concentration of nitrates and phosphates.

    High concentrations of nitrates and phosphates encourage plants and algae to grow rapidly. Surface plants and algae block sunlight, so plants in the water die as they cannot perform photosynthesis. This results in less oxygen being produced. Many animals, e.g. fish die due to lack of oxygen. Bacteria that decompose dead materials increase in numbers and use up even more oxygen from the water. This process is called eutrophication.

     

    QUESTION:

    (a) Explain how the use of fertilisers can lead to the death of fish in rivers and lakes.

    CORRECT ANSWER
    EDDIE SAYS
    In order to get full marks for this answer, you need to mention the following points:
  • In order to grow food faster, farmers use fertilisers. These contain nitrates and phosphates, compounds that are needed by plants to grow well.
  • Too much fertiliser being used or fertilisers being washed away by rain can get into the water (streams, rivers, lakes) and raise the natural concentration of nitrates and phosphates. High concentrations of these compounds encourage plants and algae to grow rapidly. Surface plants and algae block sunlight, so plants in the water die as they cannot perform photosynthesis.
  • This results in less oxygen being produced. Many animals, e.g. fish die due to lack of oxygen.
  • Bacteria that decompose dead materials increase in numbers and use up even more oxygen from the water. This process is called eutrophication.
    • Question 5

    Cloning

     

    Cloning is useful to make a genetically identical copy of an organism that has desirable characteristics. Bulls with sperm, that produces high quality calves, are valuable and worth cloning. Cloning is also used to produce copies of individuals with a genetically engineered trait, for example cows engineered to produce human insulin in their milk.

    There are different ways of cloning animals, but the most successful method uses a process called nuclear transfer.

    The nucleus of a body cell of the animal to be cloned is transferred into an enucleated egg cell (one that has its original nucleus removed). The egg cell is then stimulated by electric shock to divide to form an embryo. The division takes place by mitosis. This is implanted into the uterus (womb) of a surrogate mother who is different to the parent who is being cloned. It then grows and develops into a new individual.

     

    QUESTION:

    A cloned animal contains genetic information that is identical to its parent.

    (a) Describe the stages in the production of a cloned mammal.

    CORRECT ANSWER
    EDDIE SAYS
    In order to gain full marks for this question, the following points must be included:
  • The nucleus is removed from a normal body cell of the animal to be cloned. This nucleus is transferred to an enucleated egg cell, which is then stimulated by electric shock to divide by mitosis.
  • An embryo is formed and implanted to a surrogate mother's uterus, where it grows and develops into a new individual.
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