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Exam Style 6 Mark Questions Biology 2

This is a selection of exam style questions worth 6 marks each. They test biology knowledge combined with literacy skills, so spelling and grammar must be correct in order to gain full marks.

'Exam Style 6 Mark Questions Biology 2' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  GCSE Practice Papers

Curriculum subtopic:  Biology

Difficulty level:  

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Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

This is a selection of exam style questions worth 6 marks each. They test biology knowledge combined with literacy skills, so spelling and grammar must be correct in order to gain full marks.

Read the information on each question and type your answer in the text area provided without looking at the information for each question to really test yourself.

The topics covered are all Biology from the core, additional and some triple science topics. If you are doing triple science, this paper will help you with your Biology exam.

Even if your answer in terms of scientific knowledge is fully correct, you cannot gain full marks if your literacy is not good, so you must learn those spellings and make sure your grammar and syntax are excellent.

Root Hair Cells

 

Roots do more than just anchor a plant to the ground; they take up water and mineral salts from the soil. The surface of roots are made of specialised root hair cells with long, thin extensions that reach into the surrounding soil.

The root hairs provide a large surface area for substances to enter the root. Water enters the root hair cells by osmosis. Water moves up a partially permeable membrane (a membrane where certain substances can pass through, but others cannot). Basically, water will move from an area with high concentration of water to areas of low concentration. We say that water moves down a concentration gradient.

Water then goes up the plant through xylem vessels (tissue formed from long cells that die and form hollow tubes). The upward movement of water against gravity is driven by capillary action. From the xylem vessels, the water moves into the leaves and out of the leaves by diffusion through the stomata (small openings on the surface of the leaves).

The whole process is called transpiration.

 

QUESTION:

(a) Describe the process of transpiration in plants.

The Digestive System I

 

Food contains a lot of large insoluble molecules that cannot get into the blood. They need to be broken down into small soluble molecules, like glucose, which can pass into the blood and be used in cells. Food is broken down in a process called digestion. Digestion takes place in an organ system called digestive system and is made up of the alimentary canal, a muscular tube running through the body from the mouth to the anus and involves several other organs that make chemicals needed for digestion.

 

The digestive system

 

In the mouth, food is taken into the body and teeth chew it, breaking it up into small pieces. This increases the surface area for digestive enzymes, like amylase, to work on. Amylase is contained in the saliva and breaks down starch. The tongue helps form food into a ball called the bolus. This gets coated in saliva, which lubricates it and makes it easier to swallow.

In the oesophagus, a muscular tube between the mouth and stomach, muscles contract in waves to squeeze the food down towards the stomach. This is called peristalsis.

The stomach, a muscular bag that makes enzymes (mainly ones that digest proteins called proteases) and acid churns the food up in these juices by peristalsis to make a thick paste.

The small intestine, a long, coiled muscular tube contains lots of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas and it also makes its own enzymes. In here, large insoluble food molecules are broken down into smaller soluble molecules. The latter ones are absorbed into the blood using finger-shaped projections called villi, which contain capillaries. Food is moved along by peristalsis. 

The pancreas is an organ that makes digestive enzymes and releases them into the first part of the small intestine.

The large intestine is a thin, wide, thin-walled tube where undigested food passes into after the small intestine. Water diffuses into the blood leaving the waste material (faeces) behind.

The undigested food passes out of the body through the anus.

The digested food that has dissolved into the blood plasma is taken to the liver to be processed. The liver makes bile, which helps the digestion of fats. Some molecules are broken down even more in the liver and some others are built into larger molecules again.

The gall bladder is a small organ that stores the bile made by the liver and releases it into the small intestine when it is needed.

 

 

QUESTION:

(a) Describe how the action of the mouth, oesophagus and stomach contribute to the digestion of food.

The Digestive System II

 

Now take another look at the description of the digestive system and this time pay attention to the importance of enzymes.

 

The digestive system

 

In the mouth, food is taken into the body and teeth chew it, breaking it up into small pieces. This increases the surface area for digestive enzymes, like amylase, to work on. Amylase is contained in the saliva and breaks down starch. Amylase belongs to a group of enzymes, called carbohydrases that break down carbohydrates into sugars. For example, starch is broken down glucose. The tongue helps form food into a ball called the bolus. This gets coated in saliva, which lubricates it and makes it easier to swallow.

In the oesophagus, a muscular tube between the mouth and stomach, muscles contract in waves to squeeze the food down towards the stomach. This is called peristalsis

The stomach, a muscular bag that makes enzymes (mainly ones that digest proteins called proteases, for example pepsin) and acid churns the food up in these juices by peristalsis to make a thick paste. Proteins are broken down into amino acids.

The small intestine, a long, coiled muscular tube contains lots of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas and it also makes its own enzymes. In here, large insoluble food molecules are broken down into smaller soluble molecules. The latter ones are absorbed into the blood using finger-shaped projections called villi, which contain capillaries. Food is moved along by peristalsis.

The pancreas is an organ that makes digestive enzymes and releases them into the first part of the small intestine.

The large intestine  is a thin, wide, thin-walled tube where undigested food passes into after the small intestine. Water diffuses into the blood leaving the waste material (faeces) behind.

The undigested food passes out of the body through the anus.

The digested food that has dissolved into the blood plasma is taken to the liver to be processed. The liver makes bile, which helps the digestion of fats. Bile contains lipases, enzymes that break down fats. Fats are also called lipids and are broken down into fatty acidsand glycerol. Some molecules are broken down even more in the liver and some others are built into larger molecules again.

The gall bladder is a small organ that stores the bile made by the liver and releases it into the small intestine when it is needed.

 

You must have noticed the importance of enzymes in digestion. They break down large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules. This way they aid absorption of food molecules and act as catalysts, speeding up reactions. Enzymes are very specific; an enzyme only breaks down one type of molecule. They work by using an active site, where molecules (substrate) bind to and are thus, broken down.

 

QUESTION:

(a) Describe the roles of the enzymes involved in digestion.

Enzymes

 

The graphs show how the action of enzymes is affected by three factors: temperature, pH and substrate concentration. At temperatures much above or below the optimum (the best), enzymes do not work as well. This is partly why processes in our body do not work as well when we have a fever. Enzymes denature at high temperatures.

 

The graph shows that the action of enzymes increases until the optimum temperature is reached. When and if the temperature decreases below the optimum, the action of the enzyme slows down.

Enzymes also often work best at an optimum pH. Most enzymes work best at pH7, but enzymes in the digestive system have to work well at much higher or lower pHs.

The rate of reaction catalysed by an enzyme also increases as the concentration of the substrate molecules increase. However, this only occurs up to a certain point. Beyond that concentration, there is no further change in the reaction rate, because this is the fastest rate the enzyme can work in. Adding more substrate molecules will make no difference to the rate.

 

QUESTION:

(a) Explain what factors affect the action of enzymes.

Speciation

 

Darwin started thinking about evolution after noticing differences between mocking birds from different Galapagos islands. He realised they were all very closely related, but each island had its own species.

His theory helped him explain his observation. He guessed that originally individuals from one species of mocking bird had reached the islands from South America. The environmental conditions varied between islands, so on each island different adaptations would have been more successful. So each island population evolved in a different way. Over time, the individuals on each island became so different that they could not interbreed with birds from another island. They had become new species. This process is called speciation.

 

QUESTION:

(a) Describe the process of speciation.

  • Question 1

Root Hair Cells

 

Roots do more than just anchor a plant to the ground; they take up water and mineral salts from the soil. The surface of roots are made of specialised root hair cells with long, thin extensions that reach into the surrounding soil.

The root hairs provide a large surface area for substances to enter the root. Water enters the root hair cells by osmosis. Water moves up a partially permeable membrane (a membrane where certain substances can pass through, but others cannot). Basically, water will move from an area with high concentration of water to areas of low concentration. We say that water moves down a concentration gradient.

Water then goes up the plant through xylem vessels (tissue formed from long cells that die and form hollow tubes). The upward movement of water against gravity is driven by capillary action. From the xylem vessels, the water moves into the leaves and out of the leaves by diffusion through the stomata (small openings on the surface of the leaves).

The whole process is called transpiration.

 

QUESTION:

(a) Describe the process of transpiration in plants.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
For full marks you must mention the following points:
  • Water moves into root hair cells by osmosis, from a high concentration of water to a low concentration of water, down a concentration gradient and through a partially permeable membrane.
  • Through xylem vessels and by capillary action the water goes up the plant and into the leaves. It exits the leaves by diffusion through the stomata. This process is called transpiration.
    • Question 2

    The Digestive System I

     

    Food contains a lot of large insoluble molecules that cannot get into the blood. They need to be broken down into small soluble molecules, like glucose, which can pass into the blood and be used in cells. Food is broken down in a process called digestion. Digestion takes place in an organ system called digestive system and is made up of the alimentary canal, a muscular tube running through the body from the mouth to the anus and involves several other organs that make chemicals needed for digestion.

     

    The digestive system

     

    In the mouth, food is taken into the body and teeth chew it, breaking it up into small pieces. This increases the surface area for digestive enzymes, like amylase, to work on. Amylase is contained in the saliva and breaks down starch. The tongue helps form food into a ball called the bolus. This gets coated in saliva, which lubricates it and makes it easier to swallow.

    In the oesophagus, a muscular tube between the mouth and stomach, muscles contract in waves to squeeze the food down towards the stomach. This is called peristalsis.

    The stomach, a muscular bag that makes enzymes (mainly ones that digest proteins called proteases) and acid churns the food up in these juices by peristalsis to make a thick paste.

    The small intestine, a long, coiled muscular tube contains lots of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas and it also makes its own enzymes. In here, large insoluble food molecules are broken down into smaller soluble molecules. The latter ones are absorbed into the blood using finger-shaped projections called villi, which contain capillaries. Food is moved along by peristalsis. 

    The pancreas is an organ that makes digestive enzymes and releases them into the first part of the small intestine.

    The large intestine is a thin, wide, thin-walled tube where undigested food passes into after the small intestine. Water diffuses into the blood leaving the waste material (faeces) behind.

    The undigested food passes out of the body through the anus.

    The digested food that has dissolved into the blood plasma is taken to the liver to be processed. The liver makes bile, which helps the digestion of fats. Some molecules are broken down even more in the liver and some others are built into larger molecules again.

    The gall bladder is a small organ that stores the bile made by the liver and releases it into the small intestine when it is needed.

     

     

    QUESTION:

    (a) Describe how the action of the mouth, oesophagus and stomach contribute to the digestion of food.

    CORRECT ANSWER
    EDDIE SAYS
    This question specifically asks you about the role of the mouth, the oesophagus and the stomach in digestion of food. To gain full marks you must include the following points:
  • Mouth: teeth chew food, breaking into smaller pieces to increase its surface area. Food mixes with saliva so it can be swallowed more easily. Enzymes in the saliva, like amylase, break down starch. The tongue helps roll food into bolus, so it can be swallowed more easily.
  • Oesophagus: swallowing takes place by muscular contractions called peristalsis and food is pushed towards the stomach.
  • Stomach: contraction of muscles in the stomach mix food with enzymes and acid (digestive juices). Enzymes, mainly proteases that break down proteins, break down the food and hydrochloric acid helps this process.
    • Question 3

    The Digestive System II

     

    Now take another look at the description of the digestive system and this time pay attention to the importance of enzymes.

     

    The digestive system

     

    In the mouth, food is taken into the body and teeth chew it, breaking it up into small pieces. This increases the surface area for digestive enzymes, like amylase, to work on. Amylase is contained in the saliva and breaks down starch. Amylase belongs to a group of enzymes, called carbohydrases that break down carbohydrates into sugars. For example, starch is broken down glucose. The tongue helps form food into a ball called the bolus. This gets coated in saliva, which lubricates it and makes it easier to swallow.

    In the oesophagus, a muscular tube between the mouth and stomach, muscles contract in waves to squeeze the food down towards the stomach. This is called peristalsis

    The stomach, a muscular bag that makes enzymes (mainly ones that digest proteins called proteases, for example pepsin) and acid churns the food up in these juices by peristalsis to make a thick paste. Proteins are broken down into amino acids.

    The small intestine, a long, coiled muscular tube contains lots of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas and it also makes its own enzymes. In here, large insoluble food molecules are broken down into smaller soluble molecules. The latter ones are absorbed into the blood using finger-shaped projections called villi, which contain capillaries. Food is moved along by peristalsis.

    The pancreas is an organ that makes digestive enzymes and releases them into the first part of the small intestine.

    The large intestine  is a thin, wide, thin-walled tube where undigested food passes into after the small intestine. Water diffuses into the blood leaving the waste material (faeces) behind.

    The undigested food passes out of the body through the anus.

    The digested food that has dissolved into the blood plasma is taken to the liver to be processed. The liver makes bile, which helps the digestion of fats. Bile contains lipases, enzymes that break down fats. Fats are also called lipids and are broken down into fatty acidsand glycerol. Some molecules are broken down even more in the liver and some others are built into larger molecules again.

    The gall bladder is a small organ that stores the bile made by the liver and releases it into the small intestine when it is needed.

     

    You must have noticed the importance of enzymes in digestion. They break down large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules. This way they aid absorption of food molecules and act as catalysts, speeding up reactions. Enzymes are very specific; an enzyme only breaks down one type of molecule. They work by using an active site, where molecules (substrate) bind to and are thus, broken down.

     

    QUESTION:

    (a) Describe the roles of the enzymes involved in digestion.

    CORRECT ANSWER
    EDDIE SAYS
    To gain full marks for this question you must include the following points:
  • Enzymes break down large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules. This way they aid absorption of food molecules and act as catalysts, speeding up reactions. Enzymes are very specific; an enzyme only breaks down one type of molecule. They work by using an active site, where molecules (substrate) bind to and are thus, broken down.
  • In the mouth, food is taken into the body and teeth chew it, breaking it up into small pieces. This increases the surface area for digestive enzymes, like amylase, to work on. Amylase is contained in the saliva and breaks down starch. Amylase belongs to a group of enzymes, called carbohydrases that break down carbohydrates into sugars.
  • For example, starch is broken down glucose.
  • In the stomach, a muscular bag that makes enzymes (mainly ones that digest proteins called proteases, for example pepsin) and acid churns the food up in these juices by peristalsis to make a thick paste. Proteins are broken down into amino acids.
  • The digested food that has dissolved into the blood plasma is taken to the liver to be processed. The liver makes bile, which helps the digestion of fats. Bile contains lipases, enzymes that break down fats. Fats are also called lipids and are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
    • Question 4

    Enzymes

     

    The graphs show how the action of enzymes is affected by three factors: temperature, pH and substrate concentration. At temperatures much above or below the optimum (the best), enzymes do not work as well. This is partly why processes in our body do not work as well when we have a fever. Enzymes denature at high temperatures.

     

    The graph shows that the action of enzymes increases until the optimum temperature is reached. When and if the temperature decreases below the optimum, the action of the enzyme slows down.

    Enzymes also often work best at an optimum pH. Most enzymes work best at pH7, but enzymes in the digestive system have to work well at much higher or lower pHs.

    The rate of reaction catalysed by an enzyme also increases as the concentration of the substrate molecules increase. However, this only occurs up to a certain point. Beyond that concentration, there is no further change in the reaction rate, because this is the fastest rate the enzyme can work in. Adding more substrate molecules will make no difference to the rate.

     

    QUESTION:

    (a) Explain what factors affect the action of enzymes.

    CORRECT ANSWER
    EDDIE SAYS
    In order to gain full marks for this question, you must include the following points:
  • The graphs show how the action of enzymes is affected by three factors: temperature, pH and substrate concentration. At temperatures much above or below the optimum (the best), enzymes do not work as well.
  • The graph shows that the action of enzymes increases until the optimum temperature is reached. When and if the temperature decreases below the optimum, the action of the enzyme slows down.
  • Enzymes also often work best at an optimum pH. Most enzymes work best at pH7, but enzymes in the digestive system have to work well at much higher or lower pHs.
  • The rate of reaction catalysed by an enzyme also increases as the concentration of the substrate molecules increase. However, this only occurs up to a certain point. Beyond that concentration, there is no further change in the reaction rate, because this is the faster rate the enzyme can work in. Adding more substrate molecules will make no difference to the rate.
    • Question 5

    Speciation

     

    Darwin started thinking about evolution after noticing differences between mocking birds from different Galapagos islands. He realised they were all very closely related, but each island had its own species.

    His theory helped him explain his observation. He guessed that originally individuals from one species of mocking bird had reached the islands from South America. The environmental conditions varied between islands, so on each island different adaptations would have been more successful. So each island population evolved in a different way. Over time, the individuals on each island became so different that they could not interbreed with birds from another island. They had become new species. This process is called speciation.

     

    QUESTION:

    (a) Describe the process of speciation.

    CORRECT ANSWER
    EDDIE SAYS
    It may help you to use the example of mocking birds in your answer. In order to gain full marks for this question you must include the following points:
  • Darwin guessed that originally individuals from one species of mocking bird had reached the islands from South America. The environmental conditions varied between islands, so on each island different adaptations would have been more successful. So each island population evolved in a different way. Over time, the individuals on each island became so different that they could not interbreed with birds from another island. They had become new species. This process is called speciation.
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