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GCSE Higher Extension Science Exam Practice Paper

In this worksheet, students undertake this general practice paper in preparation for their GCSE exam.

'GCSE Higher Extension Science Exam Practice Paper' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  GCSE Practice Papers

Curriculum subtopic:  Biology

Difficulty level:  

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Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

This is an exam practice paper for higher tier extension science, covering biology, chemistry and physics. The paper should be completed in one hour. 

Grade boundaries:
54-60 = A*
48-53 = A
42-47 = B
36-41 = C
30-35 = D
24-29 = E
18-23 = F
12-17 = G
0-11 = U

The picture shows an egg and sperm cells. Sperm and egg cells contain a haploid number of chromosomes.

Explain what is meant by the term haploid.

Sperm cells determine gender. Explain why.

Complete the Punnett square to show how the gender of a child is inherited from the parents.

 

  X Y
X    
x    

What is the percentage chance that the offspring of a single fertilisation will be female?

25%

50%

75%

Describe how the structure of a sperm cell is related to its function.

List four methods of infertility treatment.

What theory is supported by the study of mitochondrial DNA?

Describe ways that plants use to communicate with other plants.

In industry nitrogen and hydrogen are reacted together. What substance do they form?

What is the correct formula for ammonia? Write the number that corresponds to the correct answer in the answer box.

1) NH

2) NH2

3) NH3

 

Describe the Haber process.

Write and explain the balanced equation for the Haber process.

What does the symbol Equilibrium symbol mean in the Haber process?

Name the catalyst used in the Haber process.

Most of the ammonia that is produced by the Haber process is used to make fertilisers.

What are the dangers of using too much fertilisers for growing crops?

Positron emission tomography (PET) scanners are used in hospitals. What are they used for?

 

How does a PET scanner produce internal images of body organs?

Define the term anti-matter.

Describe Einstein's mass energy equivalence idea.

What is a quark? The diagram shows the quark structure of protons and neutrons.

 

                                   

How many and what types of quarks do neutrons contain?

What is the temperature of the absolute zero?

What does absolute zero mean?

What is the temperature of absolute zero in the Kelvin scale?

What is the boiling point of water in Kelvin?

  • Question 1

The picture shows an egg and sperm cells. Sperm and egg cells contain a haploid number of chromosomes.

Explain what is meant by the term haploid.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Haploid means half the number of chromosomes than a body cell (1 mark). Only gametes (sex cells) are haploid (1 mark), e.g. sperm and egg cells.
  • Question 2

Sperm cells determine gender. Explain why.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Sperm cells contain either an X or a Y chromosome.
- If they contain a Y chromosome, the fertilised egg will grow into a male, whereas if they contain an X, there will be a female.
  • Question 3

Complete the Punnett square to show how the gender of a child is inherited from the parents.

 

  X Y
X    
x    
CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You should be able to complete the Punnet square like this:

  • Question 4

What is the percentage chance that the offspring of a single fertilisation will be female?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The percentage chance of a female being born in a single fertilisation is 50 per cent.
  • Question 5

Describe how the structure of a sperm cell is related to its function.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following features:
- tail for swimming
- mitochondria in middle section to release energy in respiration
- haploid nucleus
- acrosome containing enzymes to digest a way into the egg
  • Question 6

List four methods of infertility treatment.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following methods:
- IVF (in vitro fertilisation)
- egg donation
- surrogate mothers
- hormones
  • Question 7

What theory is supported by the study of mitochondrial DNA?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Modern humans evolved once in Africa between 100 and 200 thousand years ago.
- Our mitochondrial DNA comes from one woman that lived in Africa around that time; she is called 'African Eve'.
  • Question 8

Describe ways that plants use to communicate with other plants.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Acacia trees in Africa produce distasteful, poisonous chemicals to deter herbivores.
- When an insect attack occurs, the leaves also produce a gas called ethene.
- This diffuses through the air to nearby Acacia trees as a warning sign, so they can make ethene, too.
  • Question 9

In industry nitrogen and hydrogen are reacted together. What substance do they form?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Nitrogen and hydrogen react together to form ammonia.
  • Question 10

What is the correct formula for ammonia? Write the number that corresponds to the correct answer in the answer box.

1) NH

2) NH2

3) NH3

 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The correct formula for ammonia is NH3.
  • Question 11

Describe the Haber process.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Nitrogen from the air AND hydrogen from natural gas (1 mark) react in the presence of a catalyst at 400-450 degrees Celsius AND a pressure of 200 atm (1 mark). The gases are cooled and ammonia turns to liquid (1 mark).
  • Question 12

Write and explain the balanced equation for the Haber process.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following:
- reactants
- products
- balancing
- states of reactants and products
The correct equation is:
N2(g) + 3H2 Equilibrium symbol 2NH3(g)
  • Question 13

What does the symbol Equilibrium symbol mean in the Haber process?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The symbol means this is a reversible reaction in dynamic equilibrium.
  • Question 14

Name the catalyst used in the Haber process.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The Haber process takes place in the presence of an iron catalyst.
  • Question 15

Most of the ammonia that is produced by the Haber process is used to make fertilisers.

What are the dangers of using too much fertilisers for growing crops?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- The increased use of fertilisers leads to the phenomenon of eutrophication.
- When the fertilisers are washed off by rain and get into rivers and lakes.
- Algae and plants in the water grow quickly and the water becomes overgrown (may have a yellow-green colour).
- A layer of algae on the surface of the lake blocks oxygen from entering the water.
- Further, when the plants die, bacteria and fungi decompose them and use oxygen in the water for respiration.
- Other organisms die because of the limited amount of oxygen in the water.
  • Question 16

Positron emission tomography (PET) scanners are used in hospitals. What are they used for?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
PET scanners are used to take internal images of the body and identify possible issues, such as tumours.
  • Question 17

How does a PET scanner produce internal images of body organs?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Radio isotopes that emit positrons are injected into the blood in a tracer (1 mark), which accumulates in various tissues of the body (1 mark);
- positrons travel only a short distance before encountering an electron (1 mark);
- when this occurs, annihilation takes place (1 mark) AND a gamma ray is produced and detected by sensors (1 mark);
- the detection of the gamma ray pairs enables a picture of internal organs to be produced (1 mark).
  • Question 18

Define the term anti-matter.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
Anti-matter is matter that has particles of the same mass and properties as their counterparts (1 mark), but opposite electrical charges (1 mark).
  • Question 19

Describe Einstein's mass energy equivalence idea.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- When an electron and a positron annihilate, it seems that the mass disappears. The masses are converted into an equivalent amount of energy.
- Therefore, the combination of mass and energy is conserved.
  • Question 20

What is a quark? The diagram shows the quark structure of protons and neutrons.

 

                                   

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Large particles called hadrons (those include protons and neutrons) are formed (1 mark) from even smaller objects called quark particles (1 mark).
  • Question 21

How many and what types of quarks do neutrons contain?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Neutrons are made of one 'up' quark and two 'down' quarks.
  • Question 22

What is the temperature of the absolute zero?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The temperature of the absolute zero is -273 degrees Celsius.
  • Question 23

What does absolute zero mean?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Absolute zero is the temperature at which the pressure of a gas would be zero (1 mark) and the particles would not be moving (1 mark).
  • Question 24

What is the temperature of absolute zero in the Kelvin scale?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Absolute zero in the Kelvin scale is 0 K.
  • Question 25

What is the boiling point of water in Kelvin?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Boiling point = 100 degrees Celsius + 273 = 373 K.
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