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GCSE Higher Additional Science Exam Practice Paper

This is an exam practice paper for higher tier additional science, covering biology, chemistry and physics.

'GCSE Higher Additional Science Exam Practice Paper' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  GCSE Practice Papers

Curriculum subtopic:  Selection of Topics

Difficulty level:  

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Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

This is an exam practice paper for higher tier additional science, covering biology, chemistry and physics. The paper should be completed in one hour. 

Grade boundaries:
54-60 = A*
48-53 = A
42-47 = B
36-41 = C
30-35 = D
24-29 = E
18-23 = F
12-17 = G
0-11 = U

The picture shows the skull of a woolly mammoth found at a dig site in the United States. Body cells of woolly mammoths had been preserved in ice for thousands of years and contain frozen DNA samples that can be used to clone the woolly mammoth.

What is the most successful method of cloning animals?

 

Describe the method of nuclear transfer step by step.

After describing nuclear transfer, identify a problem with cloning the woolly mammoth.

The diagram shows the process of mitotic division.

Describe this process.

 

What substances of the human body are described as biological catalysts?

hormones

enzymes

plasma

Explain the term ‘biological catalyst’ and justify why it is being described as such.

The picture shows a representation of an enzyme called catalase.

Describe how enzymes work.

When pure oxygen is needed, it must be separated from the other gases in the air.

How is oxygen separated from other gases in the air?

The diagram shows the apparatus used for fractional distillation.

Describe the process of fractional distillation of liquid air.

In oxygen molecules, O2, the atoms are held together by a double covalent bond.

What is a covalent bond?

Draw a diagram of an oxygen molecule to show the covalent bond between the atoms.

Sodium and chlorine react to form sodium chloride. During this reaction ions of sodium and chlorine are formed.

Explain how this happens and include a diagram to show the ionic bond.

The photograph shows a catalytic converter.

Describe how catalytic converters reduce the amount of pollution in exhaust gases from a car engine.

 

                                    

Apart from the surface area, state two other factors that affect the rate of a reaction.

Define ‘half-life’ of radioactive material.

How is the ‘half-life’ of an isotope determined?

What instrument is used to measure the radioactivity of a source?

Define ‘count rate’.

Sketch the curve that you would expect to see on a radioactive disintegration graph.

How would you label the axis of a radioactive disintegration graph?

List all the sources of background radiation in the UK.

You would like to measure the acceleration of a ball you drop.

What two things do you need to measure?

Calculate the acceleration of a 60 kg lion if it can produce a force of 300 N to push itself forward.

Explain how seat belts and air bags reduce the likelihood of fatal injuries during a car crash and any drawbacks that their use may have.

  • Question 1

The picture shows the skull of a woolly mammoth found at a dig site in the United States. Body cells of woolly mammoths had been preserved in ice for thousands of years and contain frozen DNA samples that can be used to clone the woolly mammoth.

What is the most successful method of cloning animals?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Nuclear transfer is the most successful method for cloning animals currently.
  • Question 2

Describe the method of nuclear transfer step by step.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points put together using correct literacy:
- A body cell is taken from the animal to be cloned and the nucleus is removed.
- In the meantime, the nucleus of the body cell of another animal of the same species is removed, so it becomes an enucleated cell.
- The nucleus of the first cell is transferred to the enucleated cell.
- The cell is stimulated with electricity to start dividing by mitosis.
- The embryo grows and is then placed into the uterus of a surrogate mother (an animal of the same species).
- The animal is finally born.
  • Question 3

After describing nuclear transfer, identify a problem with cloning the woolly mammoth.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
All steps of the nuclear transfer can be achieved using woolly mammoth body cells, but there is no suitable surrogate mother, because the woolly mammoths have been extinct for over 13 000 years.
  • Question 4

The diagram shows the process of mitotic division.

Describe this process.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points put together using correct literacy:
- Mitosis begins with the chromosomes of the parent cell making copies of themselves (1 mark) by DNA replication (1 mark).
- The copies of the chromosome separate and the cell divides.
- This produces two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
  • Question 5

What substances of the human body are described as biological catalysts?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Enzymes are often described as biological catalysts.
  • Question 6

Explain the term ‘biological catalyst’ and justify why it is being described as such.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points put together using correct literacy:
- Catalysts are chemicals that speed up chemical reactions by being present and without taking part in the reaction themselves.
- The term 'biological' describes anything related to living organisms (1 mark), so a biological catalyst speeds up chemical reactions in the body of living organisms (1 mark).
- Enzymes do just that; they speed up chemical reactions in the human body and the bodies of other living organisms.
  • Question 7

The picture shows a representation of an enzyme called catalase.

Describe how enzymes work.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points put together using correct literacy:
- All substrate molecules for a particular enzyme have the same 3D shape in some parts.
- Substrates fit neatly into an active site in the enzyme. Different enzymes have differently shaped active sites.
- This model is described as the lock and key hypothesis.
  • Question 8

When pure oxygen is needed, it must be separated from the other gases in the air.

How is oxygen separated from other gases in the air?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Oxygen is separated from other gases by fractional distillation of liquid air.
  • Question 9

The diagram shows the apparatus used for fractional distillation.

Describe the process of fractional distillation of liquid air.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Air filtered to remove dust and cooled to -200 degrees Celsius.
- Carbon dioxide freezes at -79 degrees Celsius (no need to remember the exact temperature) and is removed.
- Nitrogen and oxygen liquefy near -200 degrees Celsius and are then separated by fractional distillation.
- Liquid nitrogen boils at the bottom of the column and nitrogen gas rises to the top where it is collected and stored.
- Liquid oxygen and argon collect at the bottom of the fractionating column (1 mark), so a second fractional distillation is needed to separate the two (1 mark).
  • Question 10

In oxygen molecules, O2, the atoms are held together by a double covalent bond.

What is a covalent bond?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Covalent bonds occur in most non-metal compounds and between atoms of the same element; they form between pairs of electrons from the outermost electron shells of atoms.
- Each atom contributes the same number of electrons to the covalent bond, allowing both atoms to have a full outermost electron shell.
  • Question 11

Draw a diagram of an oxygen molecule to show the covalent bond between the atoms.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Your diagram should look like the one below. You may have drawn the electrons different for each atom (for example, as dots and crosses and that is absolutely fine).
The key points are to include two oxygen atoms bonded and to show that the outer shell of both atoms has their own six electrons (1 mark) AND a common pair shared between the two atoms, which helps both atoms have a total of eight electrons and a stable outer shell (1 mark).
The diagram provided also shows the inner shell, but it is not necessary for you to include it.

  • Question 12

Sodium and chlorine react to form sodium chloride. During this reaction ions of sodium and chlorine are formed.

Explain how this happens and include a diagram to show the ionic bond.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- During the reaction chlorine atoms gain an electron to become chloride ions (1 mark), whereas the sodium atoms lose an electron to become sodium ions (1 mark).
- Your diagram should look similar to this, showing the exchange of electrons (1 mark) and the overall charge of the ions (1 mark).
  • Question 13

The photograph shows a catalytic converter.

Describe how catalytic converters reduce the amount of pollution in exhaust gases from a car engine.

 

                                    

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- Catalytic converters help to combine unburned petrol with oxygen from the air and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water vapour.
- Transition metals such as platinum, rhodium or palladium speed up this reaction (catalysts).
- To minimise cost without compromising efficiency, a honeycomb structure inside the converter provides the maximum surface area needed.
  • Question 14

Apart from the surface area, state two other factors that affect the rate of a reaction.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Surface area, concentration and temperature, as well as pressure, affect the rate of a reaction.
  • Question 15

Define ‘half-life’ of radioactive material.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
Half-life is the time taken for half the unstable nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope (1 mark) to decay (1 mark).
  • Question 16

How is the ‘half-life’ of an isotope determined?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The radioactive activity of the sample must be recorded over a long period of time.
  • Question 17

What instrument is used to measure the radioactivity of a source?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Geiger-Müller (GM) tube or Geiger counter.
  • Question 18

Define ‘count rate’.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The number of clicks per second (or minute).
  • Question 19

Sketch the curve that you would expect to see on a radioactive disintegration graph.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The shape should be similar to the one below:
Laws of Radioactive Disintegration.

  • Question 20

How would you label the axis of a radioactive disintegration graph?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
x-axis: Count rate
y-axis: Time
  • Question 21

List all the sources of background radiation in the UK.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following:
- radon gas
- food and drink
- cosmic rays
- nuclear power
- medical
- ground and buildings
- other (no additional mark)
  • Question 22

You would like to measure the acceleration of a ball you drop.

What two things do you need to measure?

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
In order to calculate the acceleration of an object, you need to measure its mass and the force at which it falls.
  • Question 23

Calculate the acceleration of a 60 kg lion if it can produce a force of 300 N to push itself forward.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
F= m x a

F = 300 N (Force)
m = 60 kg (mass)
By rearranging the equation we get the acceleration: F
a = - m
a = 300/60 = 5 m/s²
  • Question 24

Explain how seat belts and air bags reduce the likelihood of fatal injuries during a car crash and any drawbacks that their use may have.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You will get 1 mark for each of the following points:
- In an accident a seat belt stretches. This reduces the rate of change of momentum and subsequently the force on the passenger.
- In high speed accidents, though, the force is so great that the seat belt may cause injury.
- Air bags reduce the momentum to zero more slowly and help prevent seat belt injuries (1 mark). However, they do not inflate at low speeds so seat belts are still needed (1 mark).
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