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Cells

In this worksheet, students read descriptions of plant, animal and bacterial cells, as well as specialised cells.

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  Biology: Cell Biology

Curriculum subtopic:  Cells as a Basic Structural Unit

Difficulty level:  

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QUESTION 1 of 10

Cells are the building blocks of life, i.e. they make up every living organism. There are unicellular organisms (made of one cell) and multicellular organisms (made of many cells).

Animal and plant cells have some common organellesnucleuscell membrane and cytoplasm. The nucleus contains the DNA, so controls what happens in the cell; they call it the brain of the cell. The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell and the cytoplasm is the place where chemical reactions occur. There is another very important cell organelle, the mitochondrium. The important process of respiration happens there, so that cells can produce the energy to perform all their significant roles.

 

Plant cells contain additional organelles that aid them to perform photosynthesis. These are the chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that collects light energy. Plant cells also have a cell wall around the cell membrane for additional strength and support. The cell wall is made of cellulose. Another plant organelle is the vacuole, filled with a liquid called cell sap. This provides support from the inside, called turgidity

 

The diagrams below show an animal and a plant cell. Take a good look at them and then work through the following questions.

 

 

 

What does the nucleus do in a cell?

controls all cell functions and contains the DNA

controls what goes in and out of the cell

it is the place where all chemical reactions are performed

Complete the following sentence using one of the words below:

 

Humans are _________ organisms.

unicellular

multicellular

tricellular

Select the THREE organelles that are found in both animal and plant cells.

nucleus

chloroplast

cell wall

cell membrane

vacuole

cytoplasm

What organelle controls what goes in and out of the cell?

nucleus

cell membrane

cell wall

Where is the site of respiration?

 

mitochondrium

nucleus

respiratory gland

Which organelle is the site of photosynthesis in plant cells?

mitochondrium

chlorophyll

chloroplast

The diagram below is an illustration of a bacterial cell. What organelle, found in other cells, is missing here?

 

The diagram shows different types of human cells. Tick three sentences that apply.

 

Red blood cells do not have a nucleus in order to have more space to carry oxygen around the body.

All cells are specialised according to their functions.

The cells are shown to scale.

All cells look similar.

The sperm cell has a tail to swim towards the ovum (egg cell).

Plants have specialised cells, too. This is a diagram of two root cells. They are both root cells, but they are slightly different; one is a root hair cell.

 

 

 

What is different about the root hair cell?

The root hair cell has not got a vacuole

The root hair cell has not got a nucleus

The root hair cell is elongated as it makes up root hair: small structures on plant roots that collect water from the soil

What is the liquid inside the vacuole called?

cell membrane

cellulose

cell sap

  • Question 1

What does the nucleus do in a cell?

CORRECT ANSWER
controls all cell functions and contains the DNA
EDDIE SAYS
The nucleus controls all of the functions that a cell performs, and it also contains the cell's DNA.
  • Question 2

Complete the following sentence using one of the words below:

 

Humans are _________ organisms.

CORRECT ANSWER
multicellular
EDDIE SAYS
Humans are multicellular organisms, because they are made of many cells.
  • Question 3

Select the THREE organelles that are found in both animal and plant cells.

CORRECT ANSWER
nucleus
cell membrane
cytoplasm
EDDIE SAYS
Both animal and plant cells have a nucleus, a cell membrane and a cytoplasm.
  • Question 4

What organelle controls what goes in and out of the cell?

CORRECT ANSWER
cell membrane
EDDIE SAYS
The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the cell.
  • Question 5

Where is the site of respiration?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
mitochondrium
EDDIE SAYS
Respiration takes place in the mitochondria (plural of mitochondrium).
  • Question 6

Which organelle is the site of photosynthesis in plant cells?

CORRECT ANSWER
chloroplast
EDDIE SAYS
Photosynthesis in plant cells takes place in the chloroplast.
  • Question 7
The diagram below is an illustration of a bacterial cell. What organelle, found in other cells, is missing here?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
nucleus
EDDIE SAYS
Bacterial cells do not have a nucleus, so their DNA is spread in the cytoplasm and they also have another circular DNA called plasmid.
  • Question 8
The diagram shows different types of human cells. Tick three sentences that apply.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
Red blood cells do not have a nucleus in order to have more space to carry oxygen around the body.
All cells are specialised according to their functions.
The sperm cell has a tail to swim towards the ovum (egg cell).
EDDIE SAYS
Red blood cells do not have a nucleus to allow more space to carry oxygen around the body.
All cells develop specialised features according to their functions.
The sperm cell has a tail to swim towards the ovum (egg cell).
  • Question 9

Plants have specialised cells, too. This is a diagram of two root cells. They are both root cells, but they are slightly different; one is a root hair cell.

 

 

 

What is different about the root hair cell?

CORRECT ANSWER
The root hair cell is elongated as it makes up root hair: small structures on plant roots that collect water from the soil
EDDIE SAYS
The root hair cell is elongated as it makes up root hair. These are small structures on a plant's roots that absorb water from the soil.
  • Question 10
What is the liquid inside the vacuole called?

CORRECT ANSWER
cell sap
EDDIE SAYS
The liquid inside the vacuole is called cell sap.
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