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Tissues and Organs

In this worksheet, students study tissues, organs and organ systems in the human body and plants.

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  Biology: Cell Biology

Curriculum subtopic:  Cells as a Basic Structural Unit

Difficulty level:  

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QUESTION 1 of 10

Cells with a similar structure, which perform the same functions, form groups called tissues. Tissues form the organs in plants and animals. Organs form organ systems which, all together, make up the whole organism.

cells tissues organs organ systems organism

 

Animals

Here are some important animal tissues:

  • muscular tissue, which brings movement
  • glandular tissue, which secretes important chemicals like hormones
  • epithelial tissue, which covers body surfaces.

 

The table below lists the places where some important chemicals in the body are secreted:

 

Hormone Where it is secreted from in the body
adrenaline, increases heart rate preparing the body for action
adrenal glands
oestrogen, controls the menstrual cycle ovary (females) 
testosterone, stimulates sperm production testes (males)
insulin, controls blood sugar level pancreas
thyroxine, controls metabolism thyroid gland

 

The brain contains the hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary gland. 

There are several organ systems in the human body, such as the nervous system, the reproductive system, the digestive system and the respiratory system. Study the organs of the human body carefully, using the following diagram:

 

 

Plants

Plants have a different set of tissues:

  • epidermal; which covers the plant like our skin
  • mesophyll; responsible for photosynthesis
  • xylem and phloem; which carry food and water along the plant

 

Leaves are important plant parts, as they are specially adapted. The chloroplasts in their cells contain chlorophyll to trap sunligt for photosynthesis. They have a large surface area to absorb as much light as possible. Stomata (small openings) let carbon dioxide diffuse into the leaf for photosynthesis and also let water out into the atmosphere.

For your exam you should be able to describe the structure of a leaf. This is shown in the diagram below. The cuticle is made of wax and protects the leaf preventing excess water from entering. The epidermis is a thin, transparent layer of cells to allow more light to reach the palisade cells, which absorb light. The palisade cells contain more chloroplasts to increase light absorption. The spongy mesophyll area has air spaces to allow carbon dioxide to diffuse through the leaf.

 

What do specialised cells with similar structure and function form?

cells tissues __________ organ systems organism

 

 

Write the missing word in the answer box below.

What does the glandular tissue do?

brings about movement

covers surfaces in the body

secretes important chemicals

Which organs secrete oestrogen?

adrenal glands

ovaries

testes

What is the function of thyroxine in the body?

increases heart rate

controls metabolism

controls blood sugar

What tissue covers the plant?

cuticle

epidermal

xylem

phloem

What is the name of the small openings on a leaf's surface?

cuticle

chloroplasts

stomata

Which cells are mainly responsible for photosynthesis?

mesophyll

palisade

phloem

Which gas is diffused through the spongy mesophyll area?

hydrogen

nitrogen

carbon dioxide

Which tissues carry food and water along the plant? Tick two boxes.

epidermal

phloem

cuticle

xylem

  • Question 1

What do specialised cells with similar structure and function form?

CORRECT ANSWER
tissues
EDDIE SAYS
Specialised cells with similar structure and function group together to form tissues.
  • Question 2

cells tissues __________ organ systems organism

 

 

Write the missing word in the answer box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
organs
EDDIE SAYS
Tissues form organs and organs form organ systems, which then form the complete organism.
  • Question 3

What does the glandular tissue do?

CORRECT ANSWER
secretes important chemicals
EDDIE SAYS
Glandular tissue secretes important chemicals.
  • Question 4

Which organs secrete oestrogen?

CORRECT ANSWER
ovaries
EDDIE SAYS
Ovaries secrete oestrogen.
The adrenal glands secrete adrenalin and the testes secrete testosterone.
  • Question 5

What is the function of thyroxine in the body?

CORRECT ANSWER
controls metabolism
EDDIE SAYS
Thyroxine controls the metabolism, which is the chemical transformations which take place within living organisms to keep them alive.
  • Question 6

What tissue covers the plant?

CORRECT ANSWER
epidermal
EDDIE SAYS
The epidermis (epidermal tissue) is a thin, transparent layer of cells which allow more light to reach the palisade cells.
  • Question 7

What is the name of the small openings on a leaf's surface?

CORRECT ANSWER
stomata
EDDIE SAYS
The small openings on a leaf's surface are called stomata.
  • Question 8

Which cells are mainly responsible for photosynthesis?

CORRECT ANSWER
palisade
EDDIE SAYS
Photosynthesis takes place in the palisade cells, which contain the chloroplasts that absorb light.
  • Question 9

Which gas is diffused through the spongy mesophyll area?

CORRECT ANSWER
carbon dioxide
EDDIE SAYS
Carbon dioxide is diffused through air spaces in the spongy mesophyll area.
  • Question 10

Which tissues carry food and water along the plant? Tick two boxes.

CORRECT ANSWER
phloem
xylem
EDDIE SAYS
Xylem and phloem carry food and water along the plant.
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