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Transport Systems

In this worksheet, students explore the transportation of substances in plants.

'Transport Systems' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  Biology: Transport Systems

Curriculum subtopic:  The Need for Transport Systems in Multicellular Organisms

Difficulty level:  

down

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Water and food are carried in vascular bundles along the plant. Vascular bundles are formed from xylem and phloem cells (see diagram below).

 


Xylem cells carry water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. Water is needed for photosynthesis. Xylem cells are very strong and form the wood in a tree. Their strength comes from a chemical called lignin, as xylem cells have more of it in the cellulose of cell walls. After forming wood, they die and make long thin tubes called vessels.


Phloem cells carry glucose from the leaves to other parts of the plant. They are long and thin like xylem cells, but stay alive to pass glucose from cell to cell.


Some water is lost while carried to the leaves; it evaporates from the leaf's surface through stomata (small openings on the surface).

 

 

This process is called transpiration. Transpiration is affected by:

 

  • temperature: increased temperature means water molecules have more energy and evaporate easily
  • amount of light: increasing light intensity causes stomata to open and more water escapes
  • wind: wind causes more water molecules near stomata to be removed
  • humidity: humidity is the amount of water in the air; if the concentration of water is low outside the leaf, more diffusion (movement of water molecules) takes place from the inside of the leaf to the outside

Which cells carry water from the roots to the leaves of plants?

xylem

phloem

What do xylem cells form?

food tubes

phloem tubes

vessels

What chemical gives xylem cells their strength?

amino acids

enzymes

lignin

Tick two differences between phloem and xylem cells.

xylem cells carry water, phloem cells carry glucose

phloem cells die after carrying water, but xylem cells stay alive

xylem cells die after forming vessels, but phloem cells stay alive

xylem cells carry food and phloem cells carry water

What is the scientific name for water loss from plants?

respiration

photosynthesis

transpiration

evaporation

What are the small openings through which water is lost from the leaves?

stomata

stomota

chloroplasts

Select two factors that increase the rate of transpiration.

increased temperature

decreasing light intensity

increased carbon dioxide concentration

low humidity

Why does increased humidity cause the rate of transpiration to decrease?

Water diffusion rate would decrease from the outside to the inside of the cell.

Water diffusion rate would increase from the inside of the cell to the outside.

Water diffusion rate would increase from the outside to the inside of the cell.

Why does increased temperature increase the rate of transpiration?

less water molecules evaporate

water molecules have more energy and move faster

water molecules have more energy and move less

How does an increase in light intensity result in a higher rate of transpiration?

stomata close and more water is lost

stomata open more, so more water is lost

stomata are not affected by an increased light intensity

  • Question 1

Which cells carry water from the roots to the leaves of plants?

CORRECT ANSWER
xylem
EDDIE SAYS
Xylem cells carry water from the roots to the leaves of plants.
  • Question 2

What do xylem cells form?

CORRECT ANSWER
vessels
EDDIE SAYS
Xylem cells form vessels, which are long thin tubes.
  • Question 3

What chemical gives xylem cells their strength?

CORRECT ANSWER
lignin
EDDIE SAYS
Lignin is found in extra layers in the cellulose of xylem cells and provides extra strength.
  • Question 4

Tick two differences between phloem and xylem cells.

CORRECT ANSWER
xylem cells carry water, phloem cells carry glucose
xylem cells die after forming vessels, but phloem cells stay alive
EDDIE SAYS
Xylem cells carry water and minerals from the roots to the leaves, but phloem cells carry glucose. Xylem cells die after forming wood and make vessels, but phloem cells stay alive to be able to pass glucose from cell to cell.
  • Question 5

What is the scientific name for water loss from plants?

CORRECT ANSWER
transpiration
EDDIE SAYS
Water loss from plants is called transpiration - water evaporates from the leaf's surface through the stomata.
  • Question 6

What are the small openings through which water is lost from the leaves?

CORRECT ANSWER
stomata
EDDIE SAYS
Water evaporates from leaves through small openings called stomata.
  • Question 7

Select two factors that increase the rate of transpiration.

CORRECT ANSWER
increased temperature
low humidity
EDDIE SAYS
The rate of transpiration increases when the temperature increases and humidity in the air is low.
Transpiration is slowed down by increased light intensity, as it causes the stomata to open causing more water to escape.
  • Question 8

Why does increased humidity cause the rate of transpiration to decrease?

CORRECT ANSWER
Water diffusion rate would increase from the outside to the inside of the cell.
EDDIE SAYS
Water diffusion rate would increase from the outside to the inside of the cell, because there would be more water outside.
  • Question 9

Why does increased temperature increase the rate of transpiration?

CORRECT ANSWER
water molecules have more energy and move faster
EDDIE SAYS
Higher temperature means that water molecules have more energy and can evaporate more easily.
  • Question 10

How does an increase in light intensity result in a higher rate of transpiration?

CORRECT ANSWER
stomata open more, so more water is lost
EDDIE SAYS
An increase in light intensity causes the stomata to open more. This means that more water is able to evaporate out of the leaf through the bigger holes.
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