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Allotropes and Nanochemistry

In this worksheet, students look at allotropes and examine how nanochemistry works.

'Allotropes and Nanochemistry' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

Curriculum subtopic:  Characteristic Properties of Metals and Non-Metals

Difficulty level:  

down

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Chemistry in everyday life involves chemical reaction which we can see, like cooking and experiments at school using test tubes. However, the chemical changes take place on particle level and there are millions and billions of these involved in every chemical reaction.

Nanochemistry deals with individual particles, i.e. on an atom level. It is possible to arrange atoms inside an element in a different way and create allotropes of the same element. For example, diamond, graphite and fullerenes are all allotropes of carbon.

 

Diamond is the hardest substance that exists and is used in jewellery and the manufacturing and building industries, in cutting tools. Diamonds have a high melting point, do not conduct electricity and are insoluble in water. Jewellery diamonds are almost colourless, clear and shiny, but industrial ones are coloured and opaque. Each atom is held by covalent bonds to four other atoms, which in turn are bonded to more and so on. They form a giant structure and the covalent bonds are incredibly strong, so the melting point is very high. The picture below shows a model of the diamond structure:

 

 

Graphite is also made of carbon, but it is soft, opaque and black (but still shiny). It is also insoluble in water, but conducts electricity very well. Its melting point is high, so it can be used to make electrodes for electrolysis. It is made of flat layers that are far apart, and this makes it slippery, so it can be used to make pencils. When you write with a pencil, some of the graphite slides off and leaves the mark on the paper, due to this property. Look at the diagram below to see how different graphite's structure is to that of diamond:

 

 

Fullerenes, also made of carbon, look very different to both graphite and diamond. Have a look at the model of fullerenes:

 

 

Fullerenes are black solids, insoluble in water, but soluble in petrol. They are used to carry drug molecules around the body, and trap and remove dangerous substances from the body. Their nanotubes are used in catalyst systems.

What level does nanochemistry work on?

on a solution level

on an atom level

on the macroscale

What is an allotrope?

A substance created by different arrangements of the atoms of the same element.

A substance created by the same arrangement of the atoms of different elements.

A substance that behaves differently depending on where it is placed.

Diamond, graphite and fullerenes are allotropes of which element?

mercury

lithium

carbon

Which allotrope of carbon is used to make pencils? Write the word in the answer box below.

Apart from making jewellery, what is another use of diamonds (in the manufacture and building industries)?

catalysts

removing dangerous substances from the body

cutting tools

What type of bonds link carbon atoms together?

covalent

ionic

Which allotrope of carbon is shown in the diagram below?

 

fullerene

diamond

graphite

What use of diamond could be shown in the picture below?

 

industrial

jewellery

drug transport

Which allotrope of carbon is shown in the picture below?

 

graphite

diamond

fullerene

What type of substances are fullerenes?

transparent gases

white liquids

black solids

  • Question 1

What level does nanochemistry work on?

CORRECT ANSWER
on an atom level
EDDIE SAYS
Nanochemistry works on an atom level as it deals with individual particles.
  • Question 2

What is an allotrope?

CORRECT ANSWER
A substance created by different arrangements of the atoms of the same element.
EDDIE SAYS
It is possible to arrange atoms inside an element in a different way and create allotropes of the same element. For example, diamond, graphite and fullerenes are all allotropes of carbon, as they all have different atomic structures.
  • Question 3

Diamond, graphite and fullerenes are allotropes of which element?

CORRECT ANSWER
carbon
EDDIE SAYS
Diamond, graphite and fullerenes are allotropes of carbon.
  • Question 4

Which allotrope of carbon is used to make pencils? Write the word in the answer box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
graphite
EDDIE SAYS
Graphite is used to make pencils.
  • Question 5

Apart from making jewellery, what is another use of diamonds (in the manufacture and building industries)?

CORRECT ANSWER
cutting tools
EDDIE SAYS
Diamonds are also used for cutting tools, because they are so hard.
  • Question 6

What type of bonds link carbon atoms together?

CORRECT ANSWER
covalent
EDDIE SAYS
Carbon atoms in diamonds are linked together by covalent bonds, which means a chemical bond involving the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms.
Ionic bonds involve two oppositely charged ions.
  • Question 7

Which allotrope of carbon is shown in the diagram below?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
fullerene
EDDIE SAYS
This is a diagram of a fullerene.
  • Question 8

What use of diamond could be shown in the picture below?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
industrial
EDDIE SAYS
This is an industrial use of diamonds. The round cutting tool quite possibly has diamonds around the edge of it, meaning that it is able to cut through incredibly hard materials.
  • Question 9

Which allotrope of carbon is shown in the picture below?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
graphite
EDDIE SAYS
It is graphite. You can tell because of the layers and the square structure.
  • Question 10

What type of substances are fullerenes?

CORRECT ANSWER
black solids
EDDIE SAYS
Fullerenes are black solids which are insoluble (do not dissolve) in water, but soluble (do dissolve) in petrol. They are used to carry drug molecules around the body, and trap and remove dangerous substances from the body. Their nanotubes are used in catalyst systems.
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