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Neutralisation

In this worksheet, students look at acids and bases/alkalis, and how they react to produce salts.

Key stage:  KS 4

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Chemical Changes

Curriculum subtopic:  Acids and Their Reactions

Difficulty level:  

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QUESTION 1 of 10

 

The diagram above shows the pH scale, and the pH that acidic and alkaline substances may have. Here are some facts about acids, bases and alkalis:

  • Neutral substances have a pH of 7.
  • A base is the opposite of an acid.
  • An alkali is a base which dissolves in water.
  • A base neutralises an acid.
  • The most common bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxides.
  • You can tell from the name whether a substance is a base or an acid, as acids always have the word 'acid' at the end.

 

You can see examples of names and a neutralisation reaction below:

sulfuric acid + sodium hydroxide  sodium sulfate + water

 

A neutralisation reaction always produces a salt and water. The salt is made from the metal of the base and the non-metal of the acid. In the example, above the salt - sodium sulfate - is made of sodium (the metal from the base) and sulfur compound (the non-metal of the acid). There are three main acids you will use:

  • nitric acid, which produces nitrates
  • sulfuric acid, which produces sulfates
  • hydrochloric acid, which produces chlorides

 

When an alkali is added to the acid, the pH rises until it becomes 7. It then rises above 7, when more alkali is added. When an acid is added to an alkali, the pH starts high, but decreases as the acid neutralises the alkali. It becomes neutral and then falls below 7, turning acidic.

 

There are three general equations for neutralisation reactions:

acid + oxide salt + water

acid + hydroxide salt + water

acid + carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxide

 

Oxides contain oxygen, hydroxides contain the hydroxide group (OH-) and carbonates contain the carbonate group (CO3-2).

 

We will now answer some questions on neutralisation and acids and alkalis.

What is the pH of acidic substances?

1-6

8-14

7

What is an alkali?

an acid

a gas

a base that dissolves in water

What is a neutralisation reaction? Tick two boxes.

a reaction that produces a salt

a reaction that produces hydrogen gas

a reaction between an acid and an alkali

a reaction between a metal and an acid

Choose two types of substances that are the most common bases.

metal acids

metal carboxides

metal oxides

metal hydroxides

What would be the salt produced when hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react?

sodium chloride

sodium nitrate

copper sulfate

What are the products when a metal oxide and an acid react? Tick two products.

metal hydroxide

salt

water

chloride

What would be produced when nitric acid reacts with copper oxide?

copper sulfate

copper nitrate

zinc nitrate

Which salt would be produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate?

calcium sulfate

calcium chloride

sodium chloride

What are the three products when an acid reacts with a metal carbonate?

oxygen

salt

water

hydrogen

another acid

carbon dioxide

What is the salt produced when sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate? Write the two words in the answer box below.

  • Question 1

What is the pH of acidic substances?

CORRECT ANSWER
1-6
EDDIE SAYS
Acids have a pH of 1-6, as you can see from the diagram:

  • Question 2

What is an alkali?

CORRECT ANSWER
a base that dissolves in water
EDDIE SAYS
A base is the opposite of an acid, and an alkali is a base that dissolves in water.
  • Question 3

What is a neutralisation reaction? Tick two boxes.

CORRECT ANSWER
a reaction that produces a salt
a reaction between an acid and an alkali
EDDIE SAYS
A neutralisation reaction takes place between acids and alkalis and produces a salt.
  • Question 4

Choose two types of substances that are the most common bases.

CORRECT ANSWER
metal oxides
metal hydroxides
EDDIE SAYS
The most common bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxides.
  • Question 5

What would be the salt produced when hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide react?

CORRECT ANSWER
sodium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
The salt produced in this reaction would be sodium chloride, because hydrochloric acid gives chlorides and the metal in the base is sodium.
  • Question 6

What are the products when a metal oxide and an acid react? Tick two products.

CORRECT ANSWER
salt
water
EDDIE SAYS
Salt and water are produced when a metal oxide and an acid react.
  • Question 7

What would be produced when nitric acid reacts with copper oxide?

CORRECT ANSWER
copper nitrate
EDDIE SAYS
Copper nitrate would be produced, because nitric acid gives nitrates and the metal of the oxide is copper.
  • Question 8

Which salt would be produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate?

CORRECT ANSWER
calcium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
The salt produced would be calcium chloride, because hydrochloric acid gives chlorides and the metal in the carbonate is calcium.
  • Question 9

What are the three products when an acid reacts with a metal carbonate?

CORRECT ANSWER
salt
water
carbon dioxide
EDDIE SAYS
Salt, water and carbon dioxide are produced, as can be seen from this formula:

acid + carbonate --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
  • Question 10

What is the salt produced when sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate? Write the two words in the answer box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
calcium sulfate
EDDIE SAYS
Calcium sulfate is produced when sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate.
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