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Skeletons and Muscles

In this worksheet, students will be exploring the relationship between skeletons and how muscles move them.

'Skeletons and Muscles' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   Animals, including Humans

Curriculum subtopic:   Skeletons and Muscles

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

You wouldn't get very far without your skeleton and your muscles!

 

Skeletons are the framework around which the body is built and muscles are what you use to make your body move.  Did you know, without muscles you couldn't lift a cup, walk upstairs or keep the blood pumping round your body?  Muscles also give protection for some of the body's more vulnerable organs.

 

Skeleton   Muscles of the body

 

In this worksheet we're going to explore some more about the relationship between skeletons and the muscles that make them move.

 

Below is a list of animals.

 

Tick the THREE whose bodies are supported by an internal (inside) skeleton.

frog

octopus

snake

penguin

dragonfly

snail

What name do we give to animals which have a backbone and a skeleton inside them?

 

Type their name into the box.

Here is a human skeleton:

 

Skeleton labels

 

Match the labels with the name of that bone.

Column A

Column B

spine/backbone
C
ribs
B
kneecap
A
skull
D

Bones cannot move on their own.

 

What is the name of the organs that are attached to the bones and which make them move?

tendons

ligaments

kidneys

muscles

Here are the muscles which help you to lift objects:

 

Arm muscles

 

Which of the two muscles do you think is the one that shortens so that you can lift up your school bag?

 

Fill in the letter in the box.

When the muscle you named in Q5 shortens, what do you think happens to the other muscle?

it gets longer

it gets shorter as well

it doesn't change

Many fish have a series of muscles running down each side of their bodies.

 

What do you think these muscles are used for?

breathing

swimming

feeding

What evidence do you think helps us to work out that a bee has muscles?

bees are able to fly

bees live in hives

bees have a stripy body

Where do you think you'll find a set of muscles that move blood around your body?

 

Write your answer in the box.

In order for muscles to do their work, they need energy.

 

Tick the substances in the list that you think the muscles need to be supplied with in order to work.

blood

carbon dioxide

oxygen

food

  • Question 1

Below is a list of animals.

 

Tick the THREE whose bodies are supported by an internal (inside) skeleton.

CORRECT ANSWER
frog
snake
penguin
EDDIE SAYS
Sometimes there can be surprises when we talk about skeletons. Lots and lots of people believe that snakes (which are reptiles) don't have a skeleton as they are so wriggly, but they do! Why not try typing 'snake skeleton' into google images and seeing what it looks like? The frog (amphibian) and penguin (bird) are also vertebrates and have skeletons to support their bodies. The octopus uses water, the dragonfly has an exoskeleton (you'd call it a crunchy outside!) and the snail has a shell.
  • Question 2

What name do we give to animals which have a backbone and a skeleton inside them?

 

Type their name into the box.

CORRECT ANSWER
vertebrate
vertebrates
EDDIE SAYS
Vertebrates are animals with an inside skeleton, like birds, whilst invertebrates (like centipedes) don't have an inside skeleton. Remember, your backbone is made up of several smaller bones called VERTEBRAE so that your body is flexible.
  • Question 3

Here is a human skeleton:

 

Skeleton labels

 

Match the labels with the name of that bone.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

spine/backbone
C
ribs
B
kneecap
D
skull
A
EDDIE SAYS
Hopefully that wasn't too difficult! The skull is your 'head-bone', protecting your brain. The spine, or backbone, is the flexible column of bones to which your rib cage is fixed. Your kneecap (properly called your PATELLA) is the bone at the front of your knee that you kneel on.
  • Question 4

Bones cannot move on their own.

 

What is the name of the organs that are attached to the bones and which make them move?

CORRECT ANSWER
muscles
EDDIE SAYS
The muscles are the organs which are attached to the bones of a skeleton and make them move. As a cheetah coils its body ready to race after a gazelle, the muscles shorten and lengthen to pull the bones of its skeleton into the right place for it to run. Lucky it doesn't have to actually think about how to move each bone into the right place! By the way, tendons and ligaments are parts of your joints that help the muscles to do their work and to keep your joints moving properly.
  • Question 5

Here are the muscles which help you to lift objects:

 

Arm muscles

 

Which of the two muscles do you think is the one that shortens so that you can lift up your school bag?

 

Fill in the letter in the box.

CORRECT ANSWER
A
EDDIE SAYS
Muscle A is known as your BICEPS muscle. If you put your hand over it and then bend your arm upwards, you'll feel it getting fatter underneath your hand as it shortens to lift your arm. It's the stronger of the two muscles as it has to work hard to lift objects against the force of gravity.
  • Question 6

When the muscle you named in Q5 shortens, what do you think happens to the other muscle?

CORRECT ANSWER
it gets longer
EDDIE SAYS
As you'll learn, muscles like these work in pairs: as one gets shorter, the one on the other side gets longer. That means that they work together to help us move, lift things and so on.
  • Question 7

Many fish have a series of muscles running down each side of their bodies.

 

What do you think these muscles are used for?

CORRECT ANSWER
swimming
EDDIE SAYS
This bank of muscles, running down each side of the fish, is attached to the fish's backbone and they are what flex the body of the fish as it swims through the water. It uses a combination of flexing its body and tail along with its fins to swim and direct itself. Of course, it's those muscles that make a fish, like a cod or a trout, so nice to eat!
  • Question 8

What evidence do you think helps us to work out that a bee has muscles?

CORRECT ANSWER
bees are able to fly
EDDIE SAYS
Would you agree that if something is moving of its own accord, it must have muscles to move its body? A bee has very strong muscles to work its wings when it flies - believe it or not, its muscles make its wings beat more than 200 times in a second. Now that's fast!
  • Question 9

Where do you think you'll find a set of muscles that move blood around your body?

 

Write your answer in the box.

CORRECT ANSWER
heart
EDDIE SAYS
The heart is solid muscle! It has a massive job to do, squeezing (contracting) to push the blood around your body in blood vessels. Do you like working things out? If your heart beats 70 times every minute (that's the heart muscles contracting to push the blood around), then how many times does your heart beat in a day? It's a pretty big answer!
  • Question 10

In order for muscles to do their work, they need energy.

 

Tick the substances in the list that you think the muscles need to be supplied with in order to work.

CORRECT ANSWER
oxygen
food
EDDIE SAYS
If you ticked \'blood\', you\'re so nearly right, but it\'s not a substance that the muscles get their energy from - it\'s the delivery system (like a lorry delivers food to the supermarket, but the lorry isn\'t the food!). The blood delivers the food and the oxygen that the muscles need to get the energy in order to do their work of contracting and relaxing. By the way, carbon dioxide is the waste that the muscle produce when they use energy ... but that\'s another story!
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