# Temperature and its Effects on Particles

In this worksheet, students will learn how changes in temperature affect the internal energy of materials by changing the motion and spacing of particles.

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:   Physics: Energy

Curriculum subtopic:   Energy Changes and Transfers

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

Kinetic energy is associated with movement.  The more kinetic energy you have, the faster and further you move, especially when you are a particle! Therefore, heat (which is a store of Thermal Energy) flows in a substance, because particles collide (bump onto each other) and transfer the Thermal energy to one another.  Thermal energy changes to kinetic energy, which makes particles move even faster. The transfer of heat in this way is called conduction.  In this way, all the particles in an object eventually reach Thermal Equilibrium, which means that all the particles are at the same temperature and so vibrating (moving) at the same speed.

Conduction is the relationship between heating and movement of the particles. Collisions occur when particles bump onto each other as they vibrate or move.

Particles in solids are closer to each other than particles in liquids and gases. Therefore, solids are better at conducting heat than liquids and gases.

When materials gain thermal energy (heat), they expand, because their particles have more kinetic energy to move further. When the temperature drops, materials contract.

In all the above-mentioned changes, it is important to remember that the mass of the material is conserved, i.e. no matter is added or taken away at any point. The changes take place within the existing number of particles.

Which state of matter has particles closest together?

solids

liquids

gases

What is the link between arrangement of particles and whether something is good at conducting?

The closer together particles are, the better the material is at conducting heat and electricity.

The further apart particles are, the better the material is at conducting heat and electricity.

There is no link between arrangement of particles and conduction of heat and electricity.

Two teams of students are acting out how the particles in solids and liquids pass on their energy from one particle to another.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how hard the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

What was the energetic boy on Team A and Team B trying to simulate?

a particle with low energy

a particle with high energy

a particle out of line with the others

Have another look at the descriptions of each team.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

Which team represented a liquid being heated?

A

B

Another team, Team C, are going to enact how a gas might conduct heat energy.

Suggest how the team might do this.

The team members would not touch each other and would not collide with each other.

The team members would not touch each other but would collide with each other.

Some roads are made of concrete. The concrete is laid in sections with small gaps between them.

When the temperature rises, what might happen to the sections of concrete if there are no gaps between them? Tick three options.

shrink

burn

crack

break

melt

bend

What is the reason the pieces of concrete will crack, break or bend in the previous question?

expansion

contraction

Have another look at the diagram.

When the temperature rises, what will happen to the gaps between the concrete sections?

stay the same

get smaller

get bigger

What would happen to the same pieces of concrete when the temperature drops?

expansion

contraction

nothing

The gaps between the concrete sections are filled with tar. The tar becomes soft when it is warm.

Why is it important that the tar becomes soft?

to melt and flow

to freeze and shrink

to melt so it becomes stable

• Question 1

Which state of matter has particles closest together?

solids
EDDIE SAYS
Particles are closest together in solids. In solids, the particles are held tightly, so their movement is confined to vibration. As the amount of thermal energy they gain increases, so does their kinetic energy. Eventually, they gain sufficient energy to separate and the solid melts into a liquid.
• Question 2

What is the link between arrangement of particles and whether something is good at conducting?

The closer together particles are, the better the material is at conducting heat and electricity.
EDDIE SAYS
When particles are close together, it is easier for energy transfer from one particle to another. The closer, the better. That makes sense, really - energy transfer is faster when the objects transferring the energy stores are closer together.
• Question 3

Two teams of students are acting out how the particles in solids and liquids pass on their energy from one particle to another.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how hard the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

What was the energetic boy on Team A and Team B trying to simulate?

a particle with high energy
EDDIE SAYS
The energetic boy was simulating a particle with high energy. Particles with a high thermal energy store will be transferring that into kinetic energy and thus moving more.
• Question 4

Have another look at the descriptions of each team.

Team A linked arms and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This worked well and before long the end person was moving.

Team B held hands and an energetic boy at one end jiggled about trying to make his line move. This did not work very well and no matter how the boy tried he couldn't get the end person to move very much at all.

Which team represented a liquid being heated?

B
EDDIE SAYS
Team A shows how heat energy is passed along the solid from particle to particle. Hot particles vibrate more and knock adjacent particles, passing the movement along the solid.
Team B showed how in a liquid, particles are not as close and therefore pass heat slower.
• Question 5

Another team, Team C, are going to enact how a gas might conduct heat energy.

Suggest how the team might do this.

The team members would not touch each other but would collide with each other.
EDDIE SAYS
The team would not touch each other but move around slowly in a random pattern. One of them could move about faster and try to bump into the others causing them to move. This models the particles in a gas: they are not connected, but move randomly at speed, colliding with each other and thus transferring some of their energy stores.
• Question 6

Some roads are made of concrete. The concrete is laid in sections with small gaps between them.

When the temperature rises, what might happen to the sections of concrete if there are no gaps between them? Tick three options.

crack
break
bend
EDDIE SAYS
The pieces of concrete will crack, break or bend. Think about it: what happens to the particles in a solid as they gain a store of thermal energy? They transfer some of that to kinetic energy, don't they? So, they move (vibrate) further and faster. If the material is unable to EXPAND as the particles get further apart, it will change shape in some way.
• Question 7

What is the reason the pieces of concrete will crack, break or bend in the previous question?

expansion
EDDIE SAYS
When materials gain thermal energy (heat), they expand, because their particles have more kinetic energy to move further. Remember, the particles are moving further apart, so the material takes up more space. The metal rails of railways do a lot of expanding on a really hot day and are known to buckle (bend into another shape).
• Question 8

Have another look at the diagram.

When the temperature rises, what will happen to the gaps between the concrete sections?

get smaller
EDDIE SAYS
They will get smaller as the concrete sections get bigger (expansion). Again, think about it: if the material is expanding, it's taking up more space, isn't it? That means that it expands into those specially-prepared gaps. So the gaps get smaller.
• Question 9

What would happen to the same pieces of concrete when the temperature drops?

contraction
EDDIE SAYS
The pieces of concrete would contract, as they would have less thermal energy and subsequently less kinetic energy. Now, the store of thermal energy in the concrete is transferred to the air: the concrete cools down. The particles move less, as their store of kinetic energy is reduced, so the concrete takes up less space. It contracts.
• Question 10

The gaps between the concrete sections are filled with tar. The tar becomes soft when it is warm.

Why is it important that the tar becomes soft?

to melt and flow
EDDIE SAYS
So the tar melts and flows when the gaps get smaller, so that the gaps can shrink. Remember, when the concrete is hot, it will expand and take up more space. The tar must become 'squeezable', to allow the concrete sections to expand into the gaps.
---- OR ----

Sign up for a £1 trial so you can track and measure your child's progress on this activity.

### What is EdPlace?

We're your National Curriculum aligned online education content provider helping each child succeed in English, maths and science from year 1 to GCSE. With an EdPlace account you’ll be able to track and measure progress, helping each child achieve their best. We build confidence and attainment by personalising each child’s learning at a level that suits them.

Get started