# Making Sound

In this worksheet, students will look at the definitions of intensity, amplitude, pitch and frequency and also at sound as a wave and vibration.

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:   Physics: Waves

Curriculum subtopic:   Sound Waves

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

Sound is a form of energy, and hearing is one of our most important senses. The sounds we hear vary in intensity from quiet to loud.  Sounds can also have a high or low pitch.

Sound energy makes objects vibrate; for example, vocal chords in the throat when we speak and guitar strings.  Different musical instruments are designed to make different sound waves.  Musicians use tuning forks to find a note by tapping the fork lightly so that it makes a pure sound, the two prongs vibrating to make a note.  Here is a picture of a tuning fork:

Sound is what we call a pressure wave, also known as longitudinal waves. Sound waves carry energy in parallel to the direction of the wave. We can view the way sound waves travel by using a slinky spring (see picture below). Vibrations are created when we push and pull one end of the slinky backwards and forwards. When air travels through the air, the air particles squash up (compressions - areas of high pressure) and then move apart (rarefactions - areas of low pressure) just like the coils of the slinky.

Microphones contain a thin membrane called the diaphragm, which vibrates when it picks up sound waves. This causes other parts of the microphone to vibrate; these vibrations are converted into an electrical current, which is eventually transferred as an audio signal. An oscilloscope (see diagram) picks up sound waves and puts them in a graph. The frequency of a wave is the number of complete waves that pass through a fixed point in a second. Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz). Listening to a 20Hz sound means 20 sound waves reach your ear every second. The pitch of a sound depends on the frequency, so high-pitched sounds have a high frequency and low-pitched sounds have a low frequency.

The distance between the tops of two waves as shown in the oscilloscope is called the wavelength. A long wavelength means the sound has a low frequency and a low pitch, whereas a short wavelength means high frequency and high pitch. Half the height of a wave is called the amplitude. Bigger amplitude means the sound has more energy and is louder than a sound with a smaller amplitude.

The diagram below illustrates wavelength and amplitude:

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

Sound is a form of __________.

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

_____________ is a general word for how loud or quiet a sound is.

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

The word _____________ describes whether a sound is high or low.

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

Guitar strings and vocal chords ____________ when they produce sound.

Select the option from the list below which completes this sentence:

A tuning fork is used to ___________.

eat

tune an instrument

show sound waves

What does the picture below show? Select two boxes.

an instrument used to show sound waves

a reflected sound

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

An oscilloscope shows a ________ of sound waves.

What is the unit of measurement for frequency?

Hartz

Hretz

Hertz

Match the sentences to their missing words. Hover your cursor over the boxes on the left if you can't read the entire sentence.

## Column B

High pitched sounds have a _______ frequency.
small
A long wavelength shows a ____ frequency.
high
The amplitude is ______ the height of a wave.
low
Quieter sounds have a _________ wavelength.
half

What changes when the same note is played louder?

frequency

wavelength

amplitude

pitch

• Question 1

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

Sound is a form of __________.

energy
EDDIE SAYS
Sound is a form of energy.
• Question 2

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

_____________ is a general word for how loud or quiet a sound is.

Intensity
EDDIE SAYS
Intensity is how loud or quiet a sound is. The first letter should be capital, because the word is at the beginning of the sentence.
• Question 3

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

The word _____________ describes whether a sound is high or low.

pitch
EDDIE SAYS
Sounds can be high-pitched or low-pitched.
• Question 4

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

Guitar strings and vocal chords ____________ when they produce sound.

vibrate
EDDIE SAYS
Sound energy makes objects vibrate.
• Question 5

Select the option from the list below which completes this sentence:

A tuning fork is used to ___________.

tune an instrument
EDDIE SAYS
Musicians use tuning forks to tune their instruments.
• Question 6

What does the picture below show? Select two boxes.

an instrument used to show sound waves
EDDIE SAYS
Slinky springs can be used to show sound waves.
• Question 7

In the box below, write the word which completes this sentence:

An oscilloscope shows a ________ of sound waves.

graph
EDDIE SAYS
An oscilloscope shows a graph of sound waves.
• Question 8

What is the unit of measurement for frequency?

Hertz
EDDIE SAYS
The unit of measurement for frequency is Hertz.
• Question 9

Match the sentences to their missing words. Hover your cursor over the boxes on the left if you can't read the entire sentence.

## Column B

High pitched sounds have a ______...
high
A long wavelength shows a ____ fr...
low
The amplitude is ______ the heigh...
half
Quieter sounds have a _________ w...
small
EDDIE SAYS
The pitch of a sound depends on the wave frequency. High pitched sounds have a high frequency. The wavelength shows the frequency and pitch of a sound. Long wavelengths show low frequency and pitch. The amplitude is half the height of a wave and shows how loud a sound is. Loud sounds have a bigger amplitude.
• Question 10

What changes when the same note is played louder?

amplitude
EDDIE SAYS
Amplitude shows loudness, so only the amplitude would change if the same note is played louder.
---- OR ----

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