Everyone knows that we breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. But that's not technically true. The truth is we breathe in air and breathe out air... so what's the difference?
So, we need oxygen to live, but do you know how much of the air is made up of oxygen? 80%? 75%? ....it actually only makes up ~21% of the air.
So what else is in there?
The air that is all around us is made up of mostly nitrogen, ~78% nitrogen in fact. So what about the other 1%? ...The other 1% is made up of ~0.04% carbon dioxide, some water vapour and other gases such as argon, helium and neon.
The reason we breathe is to get oxygen into our bodies to allow for respiration, so you would think that the air we breathe out would have a lot less oxygen right? Well, there is less oxygen in exhaled air but probably a bit more than you would expect. Exhaled air actually contains ~16% oxygen which means we only use ~5% of the oxygen available!
The percentage of nitrogen stays at ~78% (as we do not have any use for nitrogen) but the main different is the increase in carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide in exhaled air is ~4% and the percentage of water vapour is also higher than in inhaled air.
There is a very simple experiment that we can do to prove that exhaled air contains more carbon dioxide than inhaled air.
Carbon dioxide will turn colourless limewater milky/cloudy.
The CO2 percentage in inhaled air is so small that is have not effect on the limewater, however bubble some exhaled air through it and it will turn milky/cloudy.