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Microorganisms and Disease

This worksheet helps to student to review their understanding of the way in which diseases are caused by microorganisms, how man has tried to combat their effects and what is good practice in dealing with them.

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:  Extend Your Learning

Curriculum subtopic:  Interesting Topics from the Old Curriculum

Difficulty level:  

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QUESTION 1 of 10

Microbes (often called germs) tend to be associated with bad things. To be honest, the vast majority are not only good for the health of the planet, but vital for it.

However, this worksheet explores that aspect of microbes that many people generally associate them with - that is, diseases.

Micro-organisms that cause diseases are often referred to as what....?

germs

spores

bugs

A disease that passes easily from one person to another is usually caused by what...?

fleas

viruses

bugs

Choose FOUR things from this list that you could do to try to reduce the chances of your cold spreading to someone else.

cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze

take regular showers

change your clothes at least once a day

keep away from other people as much as possible

wash your hands regularly

use a tissue when you sneeze

Which of the following ailments are caused by micro-organisms? (Choose more than one)

diarrhoea

bruise

burn

toothache

malaria

graze

flu

Antibiotics, like penicillin, started to be used regularly in the treatment of bacterial diseases during the Second World War and they were tremendously effective.

Today, why do you think that doctors are more unwilling to give antibiotics too often?

Antibiotics don't kill bacteria any more.

Antibiotics kill good bacteria as well as bad.

Many disease-causing bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.

The process of giving a small quantity of an inactive micro-organism in order to give the body a chance to build up its own resistance to the disease is called what...?

immunisation

sterilisation

protection

AIDS (which stands for Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome... phew!) is caused by which sort of micro-organism?

virus

fungus

bacteria

Food poisoning can be caused by storing or cooking food incorrectly. This allows bacteria to grown on the food and produce poisonous chemicals. Which type of bacteria in the list below causes food poisoning?

salmonella

streptococcus

chlamydia

Here is a list of famous scientists and their discoveries in the world of micro-organisms. Have a go at matching up the discoverer with his discovery!

Column A

Column B

Edward Jenner
antibiotics/penicillin
Joseph Lister
antiseptics
Alexander Fleming
vaccination
Louis Pasteur
keeping milk safe for longer

Food hygiene is really important if we want to prevent becoming ill. Pick TWO of the following which are vital ways of storing food safely.

keep cooked and uncooked meats separately

keep eggs in the fridge

keep raw meat in the freezer

keep dairy products below 5°C

store green and yellow bananas apart from each other

  • Question 1

Micro-organisms that cause diseases are often referred to as what....?

CORRECT ANSWER
germs
EDDIE SAYS
Yes, germs is the one, although it's not exactly a scientific term - you won't hear it a lot at the hospital (microbe is better). 'Bugs' is also associated with minibeasts and is even more unscientific!
  • Question 2

A disease that passes easily from one person to another is usually caused by what...?

CORRECT ANSWER
viruses
EDDIE SAYS
The trouble with viruses is that they're so small that even the best microscope you can buy cannot see them (only expensive electron microscopes can spot them) so combating them has always been a problem. They float around in the air, passing from person to person without any trouble, especially as people breathe, cough and sneeze.
  • Question 3

Choose FOUR things from this list that you could do to try to reduce the chances of your cold spreading to someone else.

CORRECT ANSWER
cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze
keep away from other people as much as possible
wash your hands regularly
use a tissue when you sneeze
EDDIE SAYS
Basically you're trying to prevent the tiny little cold viruses from getting out of you, into the air and into other people. Obviously keeping away from others is one way, but not always practical, and certainly trying to cover your mouth with hand or, better, tissue when you cough and sneeze has been proven to catch a lot of microbes (then wash your hands).
  • Question 4

Which of the following ailments are caused by micro-organisms? (Choose more than one)

CORRECT ANSWER
diarrhoea
toothache
malaria
flu
EDDIE SAYS
Grazes, burns and bruises are something you do to yourself; the others are caused by a microbe getting past your defences (like your skin) and infecting you.
  • Question 5

Antibiotics, like penicillin, started to be used regularly in the treatment of bacterial diseases during the Second World War and they were tremendously effective.

Today, why do you think that doctors are more unwilling to give antibiotics too often?

CORRECT ANSWER
Many disease-causing bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.
EDDIE SAYS
Antibiotics do still kill bacteria, good and bad, but the problem is that they have been used so much for so long that many of the most harmful strains of microbe are building up resistance to medicines like penicillin, meaning that it's becoming hard to treat certain diseases successfully.
  • Question 6

The process of giving a small quantity of an inactive micro-organism in order to give the body a chance to build up its own resistance to the disease is called what...?

CORRECT ANSWER
immunisation
EDDIE SAYS
When you build up immunity to a disease, like measles, it means that if you come into contact with the disease your body is able to fight it off without it affecting you.
  • Question 7

AIDS (which stands for Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome... phew!) is caused by which sort of micro-organism?

CORRECT ANSWER
virus
EDDIE SAYS
One of the reasons that AIDS is so difficult to treat is that it is caused by a virus that continually changes its structure, meaning that as each treatment is developed it becomes immune to it.
  • Question 8

Food poisoning can be caused by storing or cooking food incorrectly. This allows bacteria to grown on the food and produce poisonous chemicals. Which type of bacteria in the list below causes food poisoning?

CORRECT ANSWER
salmonella
EDDIE SAYS
Every now and then there are 'salmonella scares' around the UK when a number of people are affected by a bout of food poisoning, often resulting from food being stored incorrectly and growing salmonella bacteria on it in vast numbers.
  • Question 9

Here is a list of famous scientists and their discoveries in the world of micro-organisms. Have a go at matching up the discoverer with his discovery!

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

Edward Jenner
vaccination
Joseph Lister
antiseptics
Alexander Fleming
antibiotics/penicillin
Louis Pasteur
keeping milk safe for longer
EDDIE SAYS
So many scientists have worked so hard to improve the world we live in, some by inventing labour-saving devices, or ones that entertain us or, as in this case, by their discoveries to help us to live longer healthier lives. Hooray for them!
  • Question 10

Food hygiene is really important if we want to prevent becoming ill. Pick TWO of the following which are vital ways of storing food safely.

CORRECT ANSWER
keep cooked and uncooked meats separately
keep dairy products below 5°C
EDDIE SAYS
Eggs don't need to be kept in the fridge, raw meat doesn't have to live in the freezer and bananas are fine together; however, raw meat may have bacteria on which could infect cooked meats (like ham) which are not going to be heated again and so can cause food poisoning, so they must be stored apart. Dairy products 'go off' quickly if kept out of the fridge (although some cheeses are all right for some time at room temperature).
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