Evidence For Evolution
For centuries, there’s been debate regarding the development of life, all thanks to Darwin.
He stated EVOLUTION was due to NATURAL SELECTION, explaining that different individuals of the same species have different versions of the same characteristic called MUTATIONS, e.g. height.
The more advantageous variations live on to make offspring that are born with these good mutations too, like when bacteria become resistant to antibiotics.
Bacteria reproduce fast and the constant turnover of DNA leads to mutations, some of which protect the bacteria from being killed by certain antibiotics.
Evidence for Human Evolution
Human evolution was also proposed by Darwin to be the result of natural selection, believing all organisms ultimately originate from simpler beings.
We prove using FOSSIL discoveries, which are preserved imprints or remains of organisms that were alive millions of years ago.
Archeologists have used these fossil records to develop evidence for human evolution, primarily with 2 key discoveries in the lovely African ladies LUCY AND ARID.
Arid is our older lady, being a female fossil that looks similar to a human skeleton from 4.4 million years ago, while Lucy is slightly younger at 3.2 million years old and is another African fossilised skeleton.
Also, Mary and Louis Leakey discovered fossils as old as 1.6 million years that heavily resembled modern-day humans even more so than Arid and Lucy.
Another sign that we have evolved over time is the discovery of STONE TOOLS, but their ages are estimated as scientists consider the tool as old as the rock around it.
From 5 Kingdoms to 3 Domains Using Genetic Analysis
To organise the information gathered from fossils and living organisms, beings are classified.
An early model was the 7 group Linnaean system, categorising organisms into gradually smaller groups, the first group being the 5 Kingdoms.
However, the Linnaean system was founded on human judgment, whilst now scientific advances have revealed more microscopic details to organisms, updating classification to the genetic level!
Genetic analysis uses DNA to contrast the relations between beings, leading a scientist to Carl Woese to propose the THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM instead of the 5 kingdoms.