# Understand Current and Charge

In this worksheet, students will explore what electrical current is and how it can be caused to flow using the idea of charge.

Key stage:  KS 4

GCSE Boards:   AQA, AQA Trilogy, AQA Synergy, OCR 21st Century, OCR Gateway, Pearson Edexcel

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

You know at lunch when you’re finally set free from the classroom – you tend to move around in groups with people you like and avoid people you don’t like, right? Well, electrons are like that as well, only they don’t’ like other electrons. If you get two electrons and try to put them close together, they will try and move apart from each other which makes them move. This movement of electrons is what we will be looking at in this activity.

Electrons have a negative charge. Things that have a negative charge will repel each other, pushing each other away and moving in the process. We can see this in the picture below. We have forced a load of electrons onto this poor kid’s hair and they are all trying to get away from each other, they are literally picking up the hair in order to get away from each other.

We can use this to our advantage, because not only do electrons hate each other, but they love positive charges. They are attracted to them and want to get to them as quickly as possible. This means that if we make a negative charge on one side of a wire and a positive charge on the other, then the electrons in the wire will move from one side to the other.

Why is this so important? It is all because of the definition of current. An electric current is a flow of electric charge, carried by negatively charged electrons in atoms of metals.

Now for some maths! We can work out the current by using the following equation

I = Q/t

Current = charge divided by time

I = current measured in Amperes (A)

Q = charge measured in Coulombs (C)

t = time measure in seconds(s)

You will have to remember this equation!

Let's go through an example of how to use it:

Q – A charge of 3C passes through a wire every second. What is the current in the wire?

Step 1 – find and highlight all of the numbers.

A charge of 3C passes through a wire every second. What is the current in the wire?

Step 2 – Write out the numbers next to their symbols

I = ?

Q = 3C

t = 1 s

Step 3 – put them into the equation

I = 3/1

Step 4 – put this into your calculator and work out the answer, don’t forget the units.

I = 3A.

Now, let's have a go at some questions

What is an electric current?

A flow of protons

A flow of neutrons

A flow of charge

What provides charge in an electric current?

Electrons

Protons

Neutrons

What is the unit of electric current?

Ammeters

Amperes

Volts

What is the unit of electrical charge?

Ampere

Coloumb

Volts

What is needed to make a current flow?

A negative charge on one end of the wire

A positive charge on one end of the wire

Both a positive and a negative charge on opposite end of the wire

What is the current if you have a charge of 10 C that passes through a wire in 5 seconds?

What is the current if it takes 4 seconds for a charge of 0.5C to pass through a wire?

A man gets struck by lightning. A total charge of 40 C passes through him in 0.2 seconds.

If a current of 0.2 A will kill a human, was there enough current in this lighting strike to kill this man?

Yes

No

What is the current if a charge of 0.1C passes through your finger in 0.1s?

A Van-De-Graff generator is capable of delivering up to 40,000 volts in one strike with a current of 0.01 C. The strike lasts a very short time, only 0.3 s. What is the current in this strike?

• Question 1

What is an electric current?

CORRECT ANSWER
A flow of charge
EDDIE SAYS
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
• Question 2

What provides charge in an electric current?

CORRECT ANSWER
Electrons
EDDIE SAYS
Electric current is carried by negatively charged electrons in atoms of metal.
• Question 3

What is the unit of electric current?

CORRECT ANSWER
Amperes
EDDIE SAYS
The unit of electric current is ampere. This can sometimes be shortened to just Amps, but amperes is the full title. It's named after Mr Ampare who first defined it!
• Question 4

What is the unit of electrical charge?

CORRECT ANSWER
Coloumb
EDDIE SAYS
The unit for charge is the Coloumb, with the symbol C. It is named after the person who first defined it, this time it was Mr Coloumb, not Mr Ampare.
• Question 5

What is needed to make a current flow?

CORRECT ANSWER
Both a positive and a negative charge on opposite end of the wire
EDDIE SAYS
Current can only flow if there is both a positive and a negative charge on opposite ends of the wire. We call this a potential difference - look at our activity on voltage and resistance for more information on this.
• Question 6

What is the current if you have a charge of 10 C that passes through a wire in 5 seconds?

CORRECT ANSWER
2
2A
2 A
2a
EDDIE SAYS
Charge = 10C Time = 5 I=Q/t I = 10/5 1 =2 A
• Question 7

What is the current if it takes 4 seconds for a charge of 0.5C to pass through a wire?

CORRECT ANSWER
0.125
EDDIE SAYS
I=Q/t Q = 0.5 C T = 4 I = 0.5/4 I = 0.125 A
• Question 8

A man gets struck by lightning. A total charge of 40 C passes through him in 0.2 seconds.

If a current of 0.2 A will kill a human, was there enough current in this lighting strike to kill this man?

CORRECT ANSWER
Yes
EDDIE SAYS
I=Q/t Q = 40C t = 0.2s I = 40/0.2 I = 200 A 200 is bigger than 0.2, so yes, there is enough current to kill him.
• Question 9

What is the current if a charge of 0.1C passes through your finger in 0.1s?

CORRECT ANSWER
1
EDDIE SAYS
I=Q/t Q = 0.1 t = 0.1 I = 0.1/0.1 I = 1 A
• Question 10

A Van-De-Graff generator is capable of delivering up to 40,000 volts in one strike with a current of 0.01 C. The strike lasts a very short time, only 0.3 s. What is the current in this strike?

CORRECT ANSWER
0.03
EDDIE SAYS
I=Q/t Q = 0.01C t = 0.3s I = 0.01/0.3 I = 0.03 A
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