  # Roman Numerals: I to M

In this worksheet, students must convert normal numbers to Roman Numerals up to 1000s. Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   Number: Number and Place Value

Curriculum subtopic:   Read Roman Numerals to M (1000)

Difficulty level:   #### Worksheet Overview

The numbers that we use today are not the same as the ones the Romans used. Roman Numerals were used all over the Roman Empire.

In England, they are still used occasionally, for example, on film credits and clock faces.

Remember that the Romans didn't have a symbol for the number 0.

The Romans used these symbols:

 I = 1 V = 5 X = 10 L = 50 C = 100 D = 500 M = 1000

All other numbers can be built using these symbols by adding or subtracting.

You should know the following:

 1 I 2 II 3 III 4 IV I before V is 1 less than 5 5 V 6 VI I after V is 1 more than 5 7 VII II after V is 2 more than 5 8 VIII III after V is 3 more than 5 9 IX I before X is 1 less than 10 10 X 11 XI I after X is 1 more than 10 12 XII II after X is 2 more than 10

We build bigger numbers by adding 10s or Xs in Roman Numerals.

 20 XX = X + X = 20 21 XXI = XX + I = 20 + 1 30 XXX = X + X + X = 30 37 XXXVII = XXX + VII = 30 + 7 40 XL = X before L is 10 less than 50 or 50 - 10 = 40 48 XLVIII = XL + VIII = 40 + 8 = 48 49 XLIX = XL + IX = 40 + 9 = 49 50 L 54 LIV = L + IV = 50 + 4 = 54 60 LX = X after L is 10 more than 50 or 50 + 10 = 60 67 LXVII = LX + VII = 60 + 7 = 67 70 LXX = L + XX = 50 + 20 = 70 80 LXXX = L + XXX = 50 + 30 = 80 84 LXXIV = L + XXXIV = 50 + 34 = 84 90 XC = X before C is 10 less than 100 or 100 - 10 = 90 96 XCVI = XC + VI = 90 + 6 = 96

We build even bigger numbers by adding 100s, 500s or 1000s or Cs, Ds and Ms in Roman Numerals.

 200 CC = C + C = 100 311 CCCXI = C + C + C + X + I = 300 + 10 + 1 400 CD = C before D is 100 less than 500 or 500 - 100 = 400 444 CDXLIV = CD + XL + IV = 400 + 40 + 4 = 444 500 D = 500 800 DCCC = D + C + C + C = 500 + 300 = 800 900 CM = C before M is 100 less than 1000 or 1000 - 100 = 900 1000 M = 1000

Larger numbers are built from smaller numbers.

 1200 MCC = M + C + C = 1000 + 200 = 1200 1311 MCCCI = M + C + C + C + X + I = 1000 + 300 + 1 1400 MCD = M + CD = 1000 + 400 = 1400 1900 MCM = M + CM = 1000 + 900 = 1900

Example

Convert 1895 and 1948 to Roman Numerals.

Build the numbers using smaller numbers that you know.

Then string them together in a line.

1895 = 1000 + 800 + 90 + 5 = M + DCCC + XC + V = MDCCCXCV

1948 = 1000 + 900 + 40 + 8 = M + CM + XL + VIII = MCMXLVIII

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