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Functions in the Human Digestive System

In this worksheet, students will answer questions on the function of the basic parts of the digestive system.

'Functions in the Human Digestive System' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   Animals, including Humans

Curriculum subtopic:   Basic Parts of Human Digestive System

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

When you take a big chunk of your burger in your mouth and start chewing, it tastes great and yummy! But what actually happens with the food when it goes through your body?

Girl eating hamburger

 

The job of the digestive system is to break down the food we eat into smaller units, so we can use it as energy to keep our body going. It does many magnificent things to keep your body fit.

You will need to use the information below to answer the questions in this worksheet.

Name Function
mouth Contains teeth which cut and tear food before we swallow it, also produces saliva which helps to break down sugars and lubricate the food.
oesophagus A tube of muscle that connects the mouth and the stomach.
stomach A muscle bag that churns and mixes food. Some proteins are broken down here. The stomach contains strong acid which kills any bacteria that may have been consumed with the food.
small intestine A long, narrow tube made of muscle. The final stages of food breakdown occur here before small, useful food molecules are absorbed into the blood.
large intestine Another tube of muscle, that is wider than the small intestine but shorter. Water used by the body to help break down food in the stomach and small intestine is absorbed, leaving behind waste products which harden to form faeces (pooh).
rectum Stores faeces until it passes out of the body.
anus The lower opening of the digestive system. Faeces leaves the body through this opening.

Think about how your burger travels through your body's digestive system.

What will it go through first and where will it end?

 1234
anus
stomach
oesophagus
large intestine

Which part of the digestive system absorbs the water used in digestion, leaving behind solid waste called faeces?

small intestine

large intestine

rectum

The oesophagus (or esophagus) is a tube of muscle about 1.5 cm wide that connects the mouth and the stomach. The small intestine is another tube in the body. It is approximately 3 cm wide.

How many times wider is the smaller intestine than the oesophagus/esophagus?

1

1.5

2

2.5

Which part of the digestive system contains a strong acid?

mouth

small intestine

stomach

Match the part of the digestive system to its function.

Column A

Column B

mouth
starts off the process of digestion by using teeth...
large intestine
absorbs water
rectum
stores faeces
small intestine
absorbs small, useful food molecules

Take a look at this picture.

Can you spot something about it that doesn't look quite right?

The word gullet is old fashioned and should not be used any more.

What name should we use instead of gullet to describe this part of the digestive system?

Put these tubes into the correct order in the digestive system. 

Put the highest tube in position 1 and the lowest in position 3.

 123
large intestine
oesophagus
small intestine

What are the two openings to the digestive system called?

anus

large intestine

mouth

oesophagus

small intestine

rectum

Is this statement true or false?

Food is broken down in the stomach and nowhere else in the digestive system.

false

true

Amy tried to write her own description of how the pie she had for lunch moves through her digestive system. But she cannot remember all the new parts she has learned.

Can you help her fill out the empty spaces in her description?

Vegetable pie

 

The pie first enters the digestive system in the ___________________ (1) where it is ripped and torn by the teeth. The chewed up pie then passes down the ________________ (2). Once in the _________________ (3), the food is churned and mixed with acid to kill any unwanted bacteria, some proteins are also broken down here. The food then moves into the ________________ (4) where breakdown is completed and the useful molecules are absorbed into the blood. The water that is used in the digestive system is absorbed by the ___________________ (5), leaving behind a solid waste called faeces.

 12345
large intestine
mouth
oesophagus
small intestine
stomach
  • Question 1

Think about how your burger travels through your body's digestive system.

What will it go through first and where will it end?

CORRECT ANSWER
 1234
anus
stomach
oesophagus
large intestine
EDDIE SAYS
Well done. Can you think of the organs that were missing from this list?
  • Question 2

Which part of the digestive system absorbs the water used in digestion, leaving behind solid waste called faeces?

CORRECT ANSWER
large intestine
EDDIE SAYS
The large intestine is important in making sure that most of the water left in the digested food has been absorbed back into the body and it compacts the remains ready to be ejected from the body as faeces/feces (or poo!). Clever stuff!
  • Question 3

The oesophagus (or esophagus) is a tube of muscle about 1.5 cm wide that connects the mouth and the stomach. The small intestine is another tube in the body. It is approximately 3 cm wide.

How many times wider is the smaller intestine than the oesophagus/esophagus?

CORRECT ANSWER
2
EDDIE SAYS
To work out how many times bigger something is we have to do some dividing.
Divide the big number by the smaller one. In this case we would divide 3 by 1.5 and we get an answer of 2.
3/1.5 = 2
  • Question 4

Which part of the digestive system contains a strong acid?

CORRECT ANSWER
stomach
EDDIE SAYS
This acid is used to kill bacteria and also to help break down proteins.
It's really strong stuff, in fact it's approximately the same strength as the stuff you will use in chemistry experiments when you're older.
  • Question 5

Match the part of the digestive system to its function.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

mouth
starts off the process of digesti...
large intestine
absorbs water
rectum
stores faeces
small intestine
absorbs small, useful food molecu...
EDDIE SAYS
Yes, the mouth is where it all begins, with your teeth chopping up the food to make it easier to digest. Then, once the stomach has done its job the food passes to the small intestine where most of the goodies (that's all the nutrients) are absorbed into the blood to be taken off to where they are needed. Then the remains of the food reach the large intestine where the water left in it is removed and, finally, the faeces/feces collect in the rectum ready to be removed from the body when you have a poo - amazing, really!
  • Question 6

Take a look at this picture.

Can you spot something about it that doesn't look quite right?

The word gullet is old fashioned and should not be used any more.

What name should we use instead of gullet to describe this part of the digestive system?

CORRECT ANSWER
oesophagus
esophagus
EDDIE SAYS
Gullet is a much easier word to say and spell but it is not the correct word to use.
Make sure you always describe the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach as the oesophagus/esophagus (there are two spellings (like with faeces/feces) as we are moving towards the US-style spellings).
  • Question 7

Put these tubes into the correct order in the digestive system. 

Put the highest tube in position 1 and the lowest in position 3.

CORRECT ANSWER
 123
large intestine
oesophagus
small intestine
EDDIE SAYS
Food passes from the oesophagus into the stomach; it then passes into the small intestine before entering the large intestine.
  • Question 8

What are the two openings to the digestive system called?

CORRECT ANSWER
anus
mouth
EDDIE SAYS
Guess you knew that one! It's the mouth at one end and the anus at the other. Having said that we learned a lot about our digestive system because of a man who, in the 1800s, was shot in the stomach. When the hole didn't heal up properly his doctor used the opportunity to find out what happened inside the stomach when food was placed in it - he could actually watch it being digested!
  • Question 9

Is this statement true or false?

Food is broken down in the stomach and nowhere else in the digestive system.

CORRECT ANSWER
false
EDDIE SAYS
The breakdown of food starts in the mouth and finishes in the small intestine, so whilst lots happens in the stomach itself, there's masses of digestion happening elsewhere on the food's journey through the body.
  • Question 10

Amy tried to write her own description of how the pie she had for lunch moves through her digestive system. But she cannot remember all the new parts she has learned.

Can you help her fill out the empty spaces in her description?

Vegetable pie

 

The pie first enters the digestive system in the ___________________ (1) where it is ripped and torn by the teeth. The chewed up pie then passes down the ________________ (2). Once in the _________________ (3), the food is churned and mixed with acid to kill any unwanted bacteria, some proteins are also broken down here. The food then moves into the ________________ (4) where breakdown is completed and the useful molecules are absorbed into the blood. The water that is used in the digestive system is absorbed by the ___________________ (5), leaving behind a solid waste called faeces.

CORRECT ANSWER
 12345
large intestine
mouth
oesophagus
small intestine
stomach
EDDIE SAYS
So, here's the journey: MOUTH to chew and start digestion, down the OESOPHAGUS/ESOPHAGUS to the STOMACH. Out of the stomach into the SMALL INTESTINE for final digestion before it moves to the LARGE INTESTINE to have any water removed. Finally the faeces/feces are ejected from the body and down the toilet! Well done. I think you've successfully broken down the digestive system.
---- OR ----

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