# Fantastic Forces

In this worksheet, students will answer questions about applying forces to objects. They will recall basic principles from Key Stage 1 and be introduced to the work of Sir Isaac Newton.

Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   Forces

Curriculum subtopic:   Gravity

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

When a force is applied to an object, it moves.

The size of a force can be measured using a Forcemeter which is sometimes called a Newtonmeter.

Sir Isaac Newton was a famous British scientist who is credited with writing many important laws about gravity and other forces. According to a famous story Newton sat under an apple tree and was hit on the head by a falling apple!

He realised that the apple fell to the ground as a result of a force, which he later termed gravity.

Newton proposed several important laws which are still used by scientists today.

You may know that forces are measured in Newtons (N), after Sir Isaac Newton.

OK, let's find out about Fantastic Forces!

Modern mountain bikes have springs mounted over the front wheel.

The springs form part of the bike's suspension. They absorb knocks and bumps and help the rider to travel as fast as they can. When the bike hits a bump in the road or a pothole in the path, the spring is compressed.

What force should we use to compress a spring?  Choose ONE answer.

friction

a push

a pull

In some fishing competitions, the winner is the competitor that lands the biggest fish. To help the judges accurately award the prizes, each fish is weighed using a forcemeter.

The bigger the fish, the greater the force it pulls on the spring with.

In the box below, write the full name of the unit of measure we use to show the size of a force.

Flo and Dave are investigating 'stretchy' materials. They make a simple slingshot using a rubber band.

When they release the elastic band a force is transferred to the object inside the slingshot.

What type of force is transferred to the object?

gravity

pull

push

Flo applies a big force to the rubber band.

How do we draw an arrow to show this force?

a big arrow towards Flo

a small arrow towards Flo

a small arrow away from Flo

a large arrow away from Flo

A liquid soap dispenser is designed using a spring inside the pump. We apply a force on top of the pump to get soap.

What does this force do to the spring?

stretches it

compresses it

cleans it

Which three of these objects are also designed with springs which compress when we use them?

a pogostick

a thermometer

a spacehopper

a stapler

a mattress

Complete this sentence.

A bungee cord is made of material which __________.

stretches

shines

shatters

Write the name we give to the pulling force stretching the bungee cord as the jumper falls through the air.

Big Ian is bouncing on his daughter's pogo stick.

What can you say about the size of the force Ian rebounds with after compressing the spring?

It is less than the force he compresses the spring with.

It is greater than the force he compresses the spring with.

It is the same as the force he compresses the spring with.

Remember Sir Isaac Newton from the introduction?  He wrote many scientific laws to explain about forces.

His First Law of Motion states that:

"An object which is stood still or moving at a constant speed will remain in that steady state until a force is applied to it."

Sometimes applying a force to an object can make it slow down.

For each example below, tick the correct box to say if applying a force to it causes an object to speed up or slow down.

Tick one box only for each example.

 Speed up Slow down Kicking a football Catching a ball A skydiver jumping out of a plane A skydiver opening her parachute An apple falling from a tree
• Question 1

Modern mountain bikes have springs mounted over the front wheel.

The springs form part of the bike's suspension. They absorb knocks and bumps and help the rider to travel as fast as they can. When the bike hits a bump in the road or a pothole in the path, the spring is compressed.

What force should we use to compress a spring?  Choose ONE answer.

a push
EDDIE SAYS
When we compress a spring, we make it shorter using a pushing force, just like the little spring in your ballpoint pen when you push down on the 'clicker' to make the pen pop out.
• Question 2

In some fishing competitions, the winner is the competitor that lands the biggest fish. To help the judges accurately award the prizes, each fish is weighed using a forcemeter.

The bigger the fish, the greater the force it pulls on the spring with.

In the box below, write the full name of the unit of measure we use to show the size of a force.

Newton
Newtons
EDDIE SAYS
Sir Isaac Newton's work with forces is remembered when we use Newtons as a measure of forces.
• Question 3

Flo and Dave are investigating 'stretchy' materials. They make a simple slingshot using a rubber band.

When they release the elastic band a force is transferred to the object inside the slingshot.

What type of force is transferred to the object?

push
EDDIE SAYS
When the elastic band 'twangs' a push force is transferred to the object and it moves. The larger the push force, the further the object will move.
• Question 4

Flo applies a big force to the rubber band.

How do we draw an arrow to show this force?

a big arrow towards Flo
EDDIE SAYS
The force Flo is applying to the slingshot is shown as a big arrow (big force) in the direction of the pull (towards Flo).
• Question 5

A liquid soap dispenser is designed using a spring inside the pump. We apply a force on top of the pump to get soap.

What does this force do to the spring?

compresses it
EDDIE SAYS
It's a little bit complicated, but pushing down on the spring changes the pressure in the bottle and draws the liquid soap up and out of the dispenser. As you push, the spring is compressed (squashed) and as soon as you let go of the pump the spring pops back. Then the pressure inside the bottle is released and soap stops coming out of the bottle.
Sometimes applying a push force to an object like a liquid soap dispenser is called compression.
• Question 6

Which three of these objects are also designed with springs which compress when we use them?

a pogostick
a stapler
a mattress
EDDIE SAYS
Sleep on a mattress and your body weight compresses the springs to shape themselves to your body. A pogostick has a spring which is designed to squash when you stand and bounce on it - it then pops back up to bounce you upwards! Staplers also have springs in to make sure it pops up, ready to be used again. Springs are all over the pl;ace! By the way, a spacehopper relies on the rubbery material it's made of to be bouncy, not springs.
• Question 7

Complete this sentence.

A bungee cord is made of material which __________.

stretches
EDDIE SAYS
The bungee cord stretches when it is pulled down by the falling object attached to the end.
• Question 8

Write the name we give to the pulling force stretching the bungee cord as the jumper falls through the air.

gravity
EDDIE SAYS
Gravity is the force that pulls everything on Earth towards the Earth's centre - i.e. down towards the ground. Gravity pulls the person down, the bungee cord stretches and then pulls the person back up. Then up and down, up and down!
• Question 9

Big Ian is bouncing on his daughter's pogo stick.

What can you say about the size of the force Ian rebounds with after compressing the spring?

It is the same as the force he compresses the spring with.
EDDIE SAYS
This might surprise you, but the compression force and the rebound force are the same. If Ian wants to bounce higher, he needs to compress the spring in the pogo stick with a greater force. Have a think about that.
• Question 10

Remember Sir Isaac Newton from the introduction?  He wrote many scientific laws to explain about forces.

His First Law of Motion states that:

"An object which is stood still or moving at a constant speed will remain in that steady state until a force is applied to it."

Sometimes applying a force to an object can make it slow down.

For each example below, tick the correct box to say if applying a force to it causes an object to speed up or slow down.

Tick one box only for each example.

 Speed up Slow down Kicking a football Catching a ball A skydiver jumping out of a plane A skydiver opening her parachute An apple falling from a tree
EDDIE SAYS
Remember, when you apply a force to an object you make it move.
When an object is moving, if the force you apply to the object is greater than the force already acting on it, and in the opposite direction, the object will slow down.
It's a little bit complicated, isn't it? Don't worry, you will become very familiar with Newton and his laws as you progress through school.
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