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Substances: Separation Techniques

In this worksheet, students will have an overview of the various techniques used to separate mixtures and solutions.

'Substances: Separation Techniques' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Pure and Impure Substances

Curriculum subtopic:  Separating Mixtures

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Lots of things jumbled up together make a mixture. For example, sea water contains water, salt, sand and seaweed. It is easy to separate the salty sea water from the sand and seaweed by a method called filtration. The diagram illustrates how filtration is done in a scientific laboratory.

 

 

Filter paper is placed in a funnel, which, in turn, is placed in a conical flask. The mixture is poured into the filter paper. The solid material trapped in the paper is called the residue. The liquid that runs through the filter paper is called the filtrate. The salty sea water would be separated from the sand and seaweed, because sand particles are too big to go through the filter paper and seaweed comes in big chunks.

Salt particles, on the other hand, are too small and do not get trapped in the filter paper. Salt is dissolved in water and the two of them make a solution. Substances that make solutions cannot be separated by filtration. In the case of salt and water, salt on its own can only be obtained, if the water is left to evaporate or heated, so it can evaporate faster.

Distillation is another technique used to separate solvents from solutes, i.e. liquids from solids dissolved in them. For example, water can be separated from ink particles, as water particles evaporate when they reach their boiling point. They rise and enter a cooled tube, so they condense, which means they become liquid again and the pure water runs into a beaker. See the diagram below for the whole set of apparatus, which is called a still.

 

 

There is another separation technique called chromatography. This is described in a separate worksheet.

Name an example of a mixture you have learned about in the introduction to this activity.

Name a technique that could separate salty sea water from seaweed and sand.

What do we call the solid material that is trapped in the filter paper?

What do we call the liquid that goes through the filter paper?

Why are sand particles trapped in the filter paper?

They are too big.

They are too small.

They fit through the filter paper holes.

Complete this sentence.

Salt can be separated from water, if the water is left to ____________.

Name a technique that uses evaporation and condensation to separate solvents from solutes.

What will happen if you heat sea water?

The water will evaporate more slowly.

Nothing.

The water will evaporate faster.

What is the whole set of apparatus for distillation called?

You have some inky water. Choose the best method to separate the water from the ink.

evaporation

chromatography

distillation

  • Question 1

Name an example of a mixture you have learned about in the introduction to this activity.

CORRECT ANSWER
sea water
seawater
EDDIE SAYS
An example of a mixture is sea water. It contains salt, seaweed and sand.
  • Question 2

Name a technique that could separate salty sea water from seaweed and sand.

CORRECT ANSWER
filtration
EDDIE SAYS
Filtration is used to separate sea water from seaweed and sand. The bits of seaweed and sand can be trapped in the filter paper while the sea water drips through.
  • Question 3

What do we call the solid material that is trapped in the filter paper?

CORRECT ANSWER
residue
EDDIE SAYS
The solid material that is trapped in the filter paper is called residue, i.e. "what's left behind".
  • Question 4

What do we call the liquid that goes through the filter paper?

CORRECT ANSWER
filtrate
EDDIE SAYS
The liquid that goes through the filter paper is called filtrate.
  • Question 5

Why are sand particles trapped in the filter paper?

CORRECT ANSWER
They are too big.
EDDIE SAYS
Sand particles are too big and do not fit through the filter paper holes.
  • Question 6

Complete this sentence.

Salt can be separated from water, if the water is left to ____________.

CORRECT ANSWER
evaporate
EDDIE SAYS
Salt can be obtained from a solution of salt and water, if the water is left to evaporate.
  • Question 7

Name a technique that uses evaporation and condensation to separate solvents from solutes.

CORRECT ANSWER
distillation
EDDIE SAYS
Distillation uses evaporation and condensation to separate solvents from solutes. The solvent boils, evaporates and is cooled in the condenser, so it drips into the beaker.
  • Question 8

What will happen if you heat sea water?

CORRECT ANSWER
The water will evaporate faster.
EDDIE SAYS
If you heat sea water, the water will evaporate faster. More energy means faster evaporation.
  • Question 9

What is the whole set of apparatus for distillation called?

CORRECT ANSWER
still
EDDIE SAYS
The whole set of apparatus for distillation is called a still.
  • Question 10

You have some inky water. Choose the best method to separate the water from the ink.

CORRECT ANSWER
distillation
EDDIE SAYS
Distillation is the best method to separate water from ink, as the ink is dissolved in the water.
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