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Hydrocarbons

Inthis worksheet, students will look at how we get energy from hydrocarbons and the issues using these fuels creates. Hydrocarbons such as coal, oil and gas are used every day to provide us with energy.

'Hydrocarbons' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Chemical Reactions

Curriculum subtopic:  Types of Chemical Reactions

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Coal, oil and natural gas are known as the fossil fuels. They are incredibly important to us because they provide us with the energy we need to power our cars, heat our homes and cook our food.

 

Coal Crude Oil Gas burning

 

They are known as the fossil fuels because they were formed from dead plants and animals kept under pressure for millions of years.

 

These fossil fuels can also be classed as hydrocarbons because they are made of only two elements - hydrogen and carbon.

 

 

When hydrocarbons are burned, oxygen from the air will combine with each of the elements in the hydrocarbon (that's COMBUSTION).

 

For example, we can take the burning of the hydrocarbon methane (which is the main constituent of natural gas). The carbon will combine with oxygen from the air to form carbon dioxide, and the hydrogen oxidises to form water. This is true of all hydrocarbons.

 

The products of combustion of hydrocarbons can be tested in the lab using the set up shown below:

 

Apparatus to collect products of combustion

 

When the fuel, like alcohol, in the spirit burner is burning, the water vapour produced condenses and turns back into liquid water when it passes through the beaker of ice. The carbon dioxide produced from the fuel's combustion reacts with the limewater turning it from colourless to milky white.

 

Many of these fuels, however, can contain sulfur as an impurity. If sulfur is present the acidic gas sulfur dioxide will also be produced. This gas is the major contributor to the acidification of rain water better known as acid rain.

Tick the THREE substances below that can be classed as fossil fuels.

Coal

Wood

Hydrogen

Natural gas

Oil

Metals

What is meant by the term hydrocarbon?

They contain the elements hydrogen and carbon only

They contain lots of elements including hydrogen and carbon

They contain no hydrogen and carbon

Which of the following (A, B, C or D) is the correct word equation for the combustion of a hydrocarbon? Select the correct letter from the list below.

 

A. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide

B. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide + Water

C. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Water

D. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Hydrocarbon oxide

A

B

C

D

Which of the following is the correct test for Carbon Dioxide gas?

Relights a glowing splint

Burns with a pop

Turns limewater milky white

Fossil fuels are important to us because they provide us with?

oxygen

energy

smoke

Sulfur is an impurity that can be found in fossil fuels. Some petrol and diesel fuels are advertised as being low in sulfur. What pollution problem is associated with the burning of fuels that contain sulfur?

global warming

acid rain

noise pollution

The products of combustion of hydrocarbons can be tested in the lab using the apparatus shown below.

 

Combustion apparatus

 

What do you think is the purpose of the ice water?

to condense the carbon dioxide

to remove any sulphur dioxide

to condense any water vapour

Type this sentence out again in the answer box below, filling in the gaps with the correct words.  Don't forget to copy the punctuation too!

 

Coal, oil and ________ are described as being _______ fuels because they were produced from ______ plants and animals.

  • Question 1

Tick the THREE substances below that can be classed as fossil fuels.

CORRECT ANSWER
Coal
Natural gas
Oil
EDDIE SAYS
The fossil fuels are coal, oil and gas. These are formed from the remains of long-dead plants and animals. There is a fourth called peat which is used in more rural areas to heat homes.
  • Question 2

What is meant by the term hydrocarbon?

CORRECT ANSWER
They contain the elements hydrogen and carbon only
EDDIE SAYS
Hydrocarbons contain the elements hydrogen and carbon only, such as methane gas (CH4).
  • Question 3

Which of the following (A, B, C or D) is the correct word equation for the combustion of a hydrocarbon? Select the correct letter from the list below.

 

A. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide

B. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide + Water

C. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Water

D. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Hydrocarbon oxide

CORRECT ANSWER
B
EDDIE SAYS
When any hydrocarbon is burned both carbon dioxide and water are produced.
  • Question 4

Which of the following is the correct test for Carbon Dioxide gas?

CORRECT ANSWER
Turns limewater milky white
EDDIE SAYS
Carbon dioxide turn limewater milky white. Option A is the test for oxygen gas and option B is the test for hydrogen gas.
  • Question 5

Fossil fuels are important to us because they provide us with?

CORRECT ANSWER
energy
EDDIE SAYS
Fossil fuels provide us with the energy we require to power our cars and heat our homes. They provide a lot of energy from a relatively small amount of fuel. Trouble is, we've become so dependent on them and now our world is suffering as a result...
  • Question 6

Sulfur is an impurity that can be found in fossil fuels. Some petrol and diesel fuels are advertised as being low in sulfur. What pollution problem is associated with the burning of fuels that contain sulfur?

CORRECT ANSWER
acid rain
EDDIE SAYS
Burning of fuels containing sulfur produces sulfur dioxide (SO2) which contributes to acid rain. That's because SO2 dissolves in rain water to produce sulfurous acid (H2SO3).
  • Question 7

The products of combustion of hydrocarbons can be tested in the lab using the apparatus shown below.

 

Combustion apparatus

 

What do you think is the purpose of the ice water?

CORRECT ANSWER
to condense any water vapour
EDDIE SAYS
The water vapour would be cooled when it passes through the ice water and so would change from gas to liquid . This is known as condensation.
  • Question 8

Type this sentence out again in the answer box below, filling in the gaps with the correct words.  Don't forget to copy the punctuation too!

 

Coal, oil and ________ are described as being _______ fuels because they were produced from ______ plants and animals.

CORRECT ANSWER
Coal, oil and gas are described as being fossil fuels because they were produced from dead plants and animals.
Coal, oil and natural gas are described as being fossil fuels because they were produced from dead plants and animals.
EDDIE SAYS
Coal is formed from dead plants and oil is formed from dead animals kept under pressure for millions of years. Gas is produced with both coal and oil.
---- OR ----

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