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Metals and Acids

In this worksheet, students will look at the reaction between metals and acids to produce new compounds, focussing on the equations which describe those reactions.

'Metals and Acids' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Chemical Reactions

Curriculum subtopic:  Formulae and Equations

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

The more reactive metals react with acids to form a salt and water. This can be shown in an equation:

 

metal + acid salt + hydrogen

 

Unreactive metals, such as gold, copper, silver etc... do not react with acids.

 

The three main acids that are used in the science lab are hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3).

 

The salt produced depends on the acid that is used to produce it. The table below shows the type of salts that are produced from these acids:

 

Acid Name Type of Salt
 hydrochloric acid  chloride
 sulfuric acid  sulfate
 nitric acid  nitrate

 

Hydrochloric Acid

 

Metals react with hydrochloric acid to produce chloride salts.  For example, magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce the salt magnesium chloride:

 

magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen

Mg+ HCl2MgCl2 + H2

 

During this reaction bubbles of hydrogen gas will be released and the test tube will become hot because it's an exothermic reaction. 

 

Sulfuric Acid

 

Metals react with sulfuric acid to produce sulfate salts:

 

zinc + sulfuric acid zinc sulfate + hydrogen

Zn+ H2SO4ZnSO4+ H2

 

 

 

Nitric Acid

 

Metals react with nitric acid to produce nitrate salts:

 

magnesium + nitric acid magnesium nitrate + hydrogen

Mg+ 2HNO3Mg(NO3)2 + H2

 

As you can see from the equations the reaction of a metal and acid produces hydrogen gas. This gas can easily be identified in the lab because it burns with a pop when introduced to a naked flame.

 

Test for Hydrogen

 

The 'POP!" is the reaction between the hydrogen and the oxygen in the air to produce water vapour.

 

Let's put that all into context by having a look at a few questions.

Which of the following is released during an exothermic reaction?

heat

gas

water

hydrogen

Which of the following metals would not react with hydrochloric acid?

magnesium

zinc

silver

sodium

Identify the acid which can be used to produce the salts shown. 

 hydrochloric acidsulfuric acidnitric acid
sodium chloride
magnesium nitrate
potassium chloride
aluminium sulfate
ammonium nitrate
zinc chloride

Match up the formula below with the correct acid name, using the letters A, B and C:

 

A = H2SO4

B = HCl

C = HNO3

Column A

Column B

A
hydrochloric acid
B
nitric acid
C
sulfuric acid

Match the salt name on the right to the correct acid that is was produced from on the left. 

Column A

Column B

sulfuric acid
calcium nitrate
hydrochloric acid
calcium sulfate
nitric acid
calcium chloride

What type of salt is produced in a reaction with hydrochloric acid?

chloride

sulfate

nitrate

Complete the following equation by typing the name of the missing chemical in the text box below:

 

______________ + magnesium magnesium chloride + hydrogen

 

Complete the following equation by typing the name of the missing chemical in the text box below. 

 

 calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid  ______________+ water + carbon dioxide

Complete the following equation by selecting the formula of the missing chemical:

 

 _________+   Na  NaNO3 + H2

H20

HNO3

NaNO3

Complete the following equation by selecting the formula of the missing chemical:

 

 ____________+   ZnZnSO4 + H2

H2

O2

H2SO4

  • Question 1

Which of the following is released during an exothermic reaction?

CORRECT ANSWER
heat
EDDIE SAYS
Exothermic reactions involved the release of energy usually in the form of heat. EXO = "out of it" and THERM = "heat", so "heat out of it".
  • Question 2

Which of the following metals would not react with hydrochloric acid?

CORRECT ANSWER
silver
EDDIE SAYS
Unreactive metals such as gold, silver and platinum will not react with most acids. If you've come across the Reactivity Series, you'll know that unreactice metals like these are 'below' hydrogen in the series of how reactive elements are, so they don't react in acids (which all contain hydrogen).
  • Question 3

Identify the acid which can be used to produce the salts shown. 

CORRECT ANSWER
 hydrochloric acidsulfuric acidnitric acid
sodium chloride
magnesium nitrate
potassium chloride
aluminium sulfate
ammonium nitrate
zinc chloride
EDDIE SAYS
The name of the salt produced in these reactions gives clues to the acid used. So, that's sulfates from reaction with sulfuric acid, chlorides from reaction with hydrochloric acid and nitrates from reaction with nitric acid. Have a think: what would be the name of the salt from a reaction with Acetic Acid?
  • Question 4

Match up the formula below with the correct acid name, using the letters A, B and C:

 

A = H2SO4

B = HCl

C = HNO3

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

A
sulfuric acid
B
hydrochloric acid
C
nitric acid
EDDIE SAYS
It is important to learn the formulas of the three common lab acids as they will appear a lot as you progress through Chemistry. It'll get easier as you get to know chloride = Cl, sulfate = SO4 and nitrate = NO3 .
  • Question 5

Match the salt name on the right to the correct acid that is was produced from on the left. 

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

sulfuric acid
calcium sulfate
hydrochloric acid
calcium chloride
nitric acid
calcium nitrate
EDDIE SAYS
Sodium chloride is the chemical name of the salt that you put on your chips! It can be produced in the lab from hydrochloric acid. If you 'think' the acid names differently, it becomes easier: hydrogen sulfate = sulfuric acid, hydrogen chloride = hydrochloric acid and hydrogen nitrate = nitric acid. Then the name of the metal salt makes more sense. Did you get Acetic Acid? That'll be Hydrogen Acetate then!
  • Question 6

What type of salt is produced in a reaction with hydrochloric acid?

CORRECT ANSWER
chloride
EDDIE SAYS
Hydrochloric acid is used to produce chloride salts. Think of it as "Hydrogen Chloride" and it makes sense.
  • Question 7

Complete the following equation by typing the name of the missing chemical in the text box below:

 

______________ + magnesium magnesium chloride + hydrogen

 

CORRECT ANSWER
hydrochloric acid
EDDIE SAYS
The salt names gives the clue to the acid used in this reaction. So it must be Hydrochloric Acid ("hydrogen chloride") that reacts with magnesium to form magnesium chloride and hydrogen.
  • Question 8

Complete the following equation by typing the name of the missing chemical in the text box below. 

 

 calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid  ______________+ water + carbon dioxide

CORRECT ANSWER
calcium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
The metal from the acid combines with the acid to form the salt. So the salt in this case, is called calcium chloride.
  • Question 9

Complete the following equation by selecting the formula of the missing chemical:

 

 _________+   Na  NaNO3 + H2

CORRECT ANSWER
HNO3
EDDIE SAYS
The formulae of nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are fun to learn! All contain hydrogen, so take time to get comfortable with each one so you become confident when you use the formula.
  • Question 10

Complete the following equation by selecting the formula of the missing chemical:

 

 ____________+   ZnZnSO4 + H2

CORRECT ANSWER
H2SO4
EDDIE SAYS
So, this time it's clearly a sulfate (SO4) that's been formed, so the acid involved must be sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
---- OR ----

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