The smart way to improve grades

Comprehensive & curriculum aligned

Affordable pricing from £10/month

Describe the Cell Cycle

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Did you know that humans are made of trillions of cells?!  All living things are made from cells. Organisms are able to grow because cells can multiply.  Organisms always need new cells. Cells get damaged through wear and tear or maybe through disease. These cells need to be replaced. They have to be replaced with cells that contain the exact same genetic information. The process of producing new cells is called the cell cycle and can be divided into two processes- growth and cell division or mitosis which is the scientific name.

Image of chromosomes

Did you know that humans have around 21,000 genes? These genes control everything about us and they are found in the nucleus of our cells. In our body cells, the nucleus holds 46 chromosomes. We inherit 23 chromosomes from our father and 23 chromosomes from our mother (46 in total). That means there are 23 chromosomes in egg cells and 23 chromosomes in sperm cells. These combine during fertilisation and contain all our genes which instruct our body to do all sorts of jobs. 

The Cell Cycle

Cell Growth -The first phase of the cell cycle is called cell growth. Here the cell accumulates nutrients and grows larger. The organelles of the cell are copied, like ribosomes and mitochondria. Then the chromosomes are copied and the nucleus too.

Mitosis - Once cell growth has occurred, the cell can divide into two. This is called mitosis. During mitosis, the chromosomes are lined up in the centre of the cell and pulled to opposite ends of the cell. Two new nuclei will form and then the cell splits into two forming daughter cells. The chromosomes in the daughter cells are genetically identical to the chromosomes in the parent cell, they are clones. You can see a picture of the process of mitosis below:

Image of cell undergoing mitosis

It's through this amazing process that organisms are able to grow. 

In the following activity, you will be describing the cell cycle.

 

Our chromosomes contain all of our genetic information. How many chromosomes are there in each nucleus of a body cell? Type one answer below.

Cheek cells are a type of body cell. Body cells grow through cell division. What is the name of this type of cell division? Tick one box. 

Differentiation

Mitosis

Specialisation

Image of cell undergoing mitosis

Match up the sentences below to describe parent and daughter cells.

Column A

Column B

In mitosis, a cell divides by splitting into...
...two new daughter cells
They are identical to each other and...
...as each other and the parent cell.
They have the same number of chromosomes...
...the cell they came from

Living organisms need new cells all the time. Fill in the blanks describing why new cells are needed.

Column A

Column B

In mitosis, a cell divides by splitting into...
...two new daughter cells
They are identical to each other and...
...as each other and the parent cell.
They have the same number of chromosomes...
...the cell they came from

Many types of cell can divide to form new cells. Some cells in human skin can divide to make new skin cells. Why do human skin cells need to divide? 

Replace old cells

Replace damaged cells

Replace diseased cells

Replace new cells

Image of a strawberry plant and runner

The picture above shows a strawberry plant. The parent plant grows side shoots. New plants grow on the side shoots. The new plants will all have the same inherited characteristics as the original parent plant. Complete the sentences below to explain why.

Replace old cells

Replace damaged cells

Replace diseased cells

Replace new cells

During mitosis the chromosomes line up across the centre of the cell, like in the picture below.

Image of chromosomes lining up before cell division

What happens to the chromosomes next? Select one correct answer.

All the chromosomes move to one end of the cell

One complete set of chromosomes moves to each end of the cell

The chromosomes don't move

Image of mice

A mouse has 40 chromosomes in its body cells. If a mouse's parent cell has 40 chromosomes how many chromosomes will the daughter cells have after mitosis? Type one answer below.

What is meant by daughter cells? Answer true or false in each row.

Human body cells have a cell cycle which is divided into two processes. The table below shows some observations of cells during each process. The processes have been labeled as process X and Y.

Observation  Process X Process Y
 Number of cells 1 2
 Number of chromosomes  46 chromosomes doubled to make 92 chromosomes  46 chromosomes in each cell

Look at the table and identify process X.

Multiplication

Cell Growth

Mitosis

  • Question 1

Our chromosomes contain all of our genetic information. How many chromosomes are there in each nucleus of a body cell? Type one answer below.

CORRECT ANSWER
46
forty six
forty-six
EDDIE SAYS
In humans, our body cells have a full set of chromosomes. Twenty-three chromosomes are from the mother and twenty-three chromosomes from the father, all genes combine in different ways to make a unique human!
  • Question 2

Cheek cells are a type of body cell. Body cells grow through cell division. What is the name of this type of cell division? Tick one box. 

CORRECT ANSWER
Mitosis
EDDIE SAYS
Mitosis is the process of cell division that allows us to grow. Remember that all body cells undergo mitosis, it's only egg and sperm cells that don't.
  • Question 3

Image of cell undergoing mitosis

Match up the sentences below to describe parent and daughter cells.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

In mitosis, a cell divides by spl...
...two new daughter cells
They are identical to each other ...
...the cell they came from
They have the same number of chro...
...as each other and the parent c...
EDDIE SAYS
The parent cell refers to the original cell that is doing the dividing. The new cells that form are called the daughter cells, no 'son' cells I'm afraid!
  • Question 4

Living organisms need new cells all the time. Fill in the blanks describing why new cells are needed.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
New cells are needed for growth and repair. Without the cell cycle, organisms would die out with no new cells replacing old ones or diseased ones. Great focus, keep going!
  • Question 5

Many types of cell can divide to form new cells. Some cells in human skin can divide to make new skin cells. Why do human skin cells need to divide? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Replace old cells
Replace damaged cells
Replace diseased cells
EDDIE SAYS
If our skin cells didn't get replaced, we'd have no skin left! Old, damaged and diseased skin cells die and need to be renewed frequently keeping our skin healthy.
  • Question 6

Image of a strawberry plant and runner

The picture above shows a strawberry plant. The parent plant grows side shoots. New plants grow on the side shoots. The new plants will all have the same inherited characteristics as the original parent plant. Complete the sentences below to explain why.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Most organisms will use mitosis to grow like the strawberry plant above. Because the genes are identical, the same type of plant will grow. The strawberries might look different from one another but that could be to do with other factors like not getting enough water or nutrients. You're making swift progress biologist!
  • Question 7

During mitosis the chromosomes line up across the centre of the cell, like in the picture below.

Image of chromosomes lining up before cell division

What happens to the chromosomes next? Select one correct answer.

CORRECT ANSWER
One complete set of chromosomes moves to each end of the cell
EDDIE SAYS
Once the chromosomes have lined up across the centre of the cell they are pulled to either end of the cell and the nucleus divides. The cytoplasm and cell membranes divide and two new cells are formed. Remember, mitosis gives you to (two) daughter cells.
  • Question 8

Image of mice

A mouse has 40 chromosomes in its body cells. If a mouse's parent cell has 40 chromosomes how many chromosomes will the daughter cells have after mitosis? Type one answer below.

CORRECT ANSWER
40
Forty
EDDIE SAYS
When answering an exam question try not to get thrown off if you get asked about other organisms and their chromosome numbers, just apply what you know to the situation-that parent cells and daughter cells will have identical numbers of chromosomes after mitosis.
  • Question 9

What is meant by daughter cells? Answer true or false in each row.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Daughter cells are the product of mitosis, they are the cells formed from cell division. They will have the exact same number of chromosomes as the parent cell and will be genetically the same as the parent cell. How are you getting on? Don't forget you can always return to the introduction page if you need to refresh.
  • Question 10

Human body cells have a cell cycle which is divided into two processes. The table below shows some observations of cells during each process. The processes have been labeled as process X and Y.

Observation  Process X Process Y
 Number of cells 1 2
 Number of chromosomes  46 chromosomes doubled to make 92 chromosomes  46 chromosomes in each cell

Look at the table and identify process X.

CORRECT ANSWER
Cell Growth
EDDIE SAYS
The biggest clue that process X is cell growth is the number of chromosomes. During cell growth, the number of chromosomes will always double. This is because the chromosomes replicate and will eventually separate out into new daughter cells. Good effort!
---- OR ----

Sign up for a £1 trial so you can track and measure your child's progress on this activity.

What is EdPlace?

We're your National Curriculum aligned online education content provider helping each child succeed in English, maths and science from year 1 to GCSE. With an EdPlace account you’ll be able to track and measure progress, helping each child achieve their best. We build confidence and attainment by personalising each child’s learning at a level that suits them.

Get started
laptop

Start your £1 trial today.
Subscribe from £10/month.