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Interpret Data Relating to Osmosis

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Ever wondered why your urine is often darker and more concentrated in the summer? Probably not, it's not the nicest thing to be thinking about! But often it's because we tend to sweat more in summer months so we lose a lot more water. Our kidneys then will try and keep a hold of more water for many of our important processes resulting in more concentrated urine! This movement of water into and out of our cells is called osmosis.

Image of particles moving via osmosis

Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration, across a partially permeable membrane.  A partially-permeable membrane has holes or pores in it that allow water molecules through but are too small to allow larger molecules through. 

During osmosis, water molecules diffuse from pure water or dilute solution to more concentrated solutions.

  • Dilute solutions have a high concentration of water molecules so have a high water potential 
  • Concentrated solutions have a low concentration of water molecules so have a  low water potential

Osmosis in organisms

Plant and animal cells are surrounded by a partially-permeable plasma membrane. This allows water and other small molecules to diffuse across. Plant cells additionally have a strong cell wall surrounding the membrane which offers support and protection. Animal cells don't have a cell wall. This means they respond differently to plant cells to the gain and loss of water.

Image of osmosis occurring in red blood cells

In dilute solutions, osmosis can cause animals cells, such as red blood cells, to swell up and sometimes even burst (Beaker B in the image above). This is because water will move from a high water potential outside the cell to a low water potential inside the cell. In concentrated solutions, water loss causes the cells to shrink (Beaker C). Animal cells need to maintain a balance, this means that the water concentration both inside and outside the cell are equal (Beaker A).

Image of plant cells in different concentrations of water

Plants require water in order to photosynthesise. The roots of a plant contain root hair cells which are specialised cells that increase the surface area of the cells for maximum absorption of water by osmosis. In pure water, plant cells will take in water via osmosis and become firm or turgid. In a concentrated solution (not much water present) the cell loses water and starts to shrink and becomes flaccid.  

In humans, the concentration of water and salt in the blood are controlled by the kidneys. The kidneys ensure our bodies have the right concentration of water and getting rid of the excess water as urine.

Calculations Involving Osmosis

Image of weighing scales

Osmosis can be demonstrated using cubes of potatoes of roughly the same mass. Placing the cubes in different concentrations of sugar solutions the cubes might gain or lose mass, or may even stay the same mass.

Scientists will be able to calculate the percentage change in mass to see how much mass was gained or lost and converting to percentages often makes for easier comparison. Percentage mass is calculated by using the following equation:

((Final mass – initial mass) ÷ initial mass) x 100

For example, a potato cube has an initial mass of 1g. After placing in a sugar solution for 30 minutes its mass was 1.1g. Its percentage change in mass is 10%. 

((1.1g - 1g) ÷ 1g)) x 100 = +10%

The plus sign shows there was an increase in mass. A minus sign shows a loss in mass.

The rate of water uptake can also be calculated. This gives an indication of how much water is absorbed in an hour. The rate of uptake is calculated using the following equation:

Change in mass (g) x (60 minutes ÷ duration of time in minutes)

Using the above example of the potato cube:

0.1g x (60mins ÷ 30mins) = 0.2 g/hour

In the following activity, you will interpret data relating to osmosis. 

Image of particles moving via osmosis

Plant and animal cells use the process of osmosis to transport water into or out of their cells. Describe osmosis. 

Fill in the blanks below to answer this question.

 

Image of particles moving via osmosis

Cell membranes are partially permeable. What is a partially permeable membrane? Choose two answers from below.

A partially-permeable membrane does not have holes in it

A partially-permeable membrane has holes in it

It only allows waste products through

It allows water molecules through but are too small to allow larger molecules through

Osmosis can be demonstrated using cubes of potatoes of roughly the same mass. Placing the cubes in different concentrations of sugar solutions the cubes might gain or lose mass, or may even stay the same mass.

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After two hours each potato cube's mass was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73
% change in mass (a) 7.5 -2 -10 (b)

Calculate the percentage change in mass in beaker 1 (a) and beaker 5 (b). Select two answers below.

a) 10%

b) -8%

a) -10%

b) -13.5%

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After two hours each potato cube was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73
% change in mass +10 +7.5 -2 -10 -13.5

Explain why the mass decreased in the potatoes in beakers 3, 4 and 5. Select two answers below.

Water entered the potato for respiration

Water left the potato cells by osmosis

The concentration of water outside cells was lower than inside the cells

The concentration of water outside the cells was lower than inside the cells

 Image of water molecules Image of water moleculesImage of water molecules

Cell A 

 < Permeable membrane

 Image of water moleculesImage of water molecules

Image of water molecules

Cell B

The diagram above shows two cells separated by a permeable membrane. Cell A and Cell B have twelve molecules of water. Which direction will the water move? Select one answer below.

From Cell A to Cell B

From Cell B to Cell A

No net movement

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After 50 minutes each potato cube's mass was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73
% change in mass +10 +7.5 -2 -10 -13.5

Calculate the rate of uptake in an hour for Beaker 2.

 

0.24

0.20

0.18

Image of osmosis occurring in red blood cells

The beakers above show red blood cells in different concentrations of sugar solutions.

Which beaker shows a solution with the highest water potential in comparison to the red blood cells? Type A, B or C below.

Image of osmosis occurring in red blood cells

The beakers above show red blood cells in different concentrations of sugar solutions.

Which beaker shows red blood cells in an isotonic solution and why? Match up the descriptions to answer this question.

Column A

Column B

A
Water is entering and leaving the red blood cells ...
B
More water is entering the red blood cell than lea...
C
More water is leaving the red blood cell than ente...

Osmosis can be demonstrated using cubes of potatoes of roughly the same mass. Placing the cubes in different concentrations of sugar solutions the cubes might gain or lose mass, or may even stay the same mass.

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After two hours each potato cube's mass was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73

Calculate the change in mass in beaker 2 and beaker 3. Type your answer for beaker 2 first then type your answer for beaker 3.

Image of flaccid plant cell

The above image is of a plant cell. What is happening to the water in this cell? Fill in the blanks to answer this question.

  • Question 1

Image of particles moving via osmosis

Plant and animal cells use the process of osmosis to transport water into or out of their cells. Describe osmosis. 

Fill in the blanks below to answer this question.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Osmosis is really important for cells, they\'re able to get the water they need for different processes like photosynthesis. Like gases in diffusion, water molecules move from a less concentrated (more water) solution to a more concentrated (less water) solution.
  • Question 2

Image of particles moving via osmosis

Cell membranes are partially permeable. What is a partially permeable membrane? Choose two answers from below.

CORRECT ANSWER
A partially-permeable membrane has holes in it
It allows water molecules through but are too small to allow larger molecules through
EDDIE SAYS
A partially permeable membrane is selective and only allows water and small particles to pass through it.
  • Question 3

Osmosis can be demonstrated using cubes of potatoes of roughly the same mass. Placing the cubes in different concentrations of sugar solutions the cubes might gain or lose mass, or may even stay the same mass.

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After two hours each potato cube's mass was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73
% change in mass (a) 7.5 -2 -10 (b)

Calculate the percentage change in mass in beaker 1 (a) and beaker 5 (b). Select two answers below.

CORRECT ANSWER
a) 10%
b) -13.5%
EDDIE SAYS
To calculate the percentage change in mass: ((Final mass – initial mass) ÷ starting mass) x 100 Beaker 1: 2.20 - 2 = 0.20g; 0.20g ÷ 2 = 0.1; 0.1 x 100 = 10% Beaker 5: 1.73 - 2 = -0.27g; -0.27g ÷ 2 = -0.135; -0.135 x 100 = -13.5%
  • Question 4

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After two hours each potato cube was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73
% change in mass +10 +7.5 -2 -10 -13.5

Explain why the mass decreased in the potatoes in beakers 3, 4 and 5. Select two answers below.

CORRECT ANSWER
Water left the potato cells by osmosis
The concentration of water outside the cells was lower than inside the cells
EDDIE SAYS
Water moves from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated. In beakers 3, 4 and 5 the concentration of sugar is high meaning the concentration of water will be high. The water will move out of the potatoes resulting in a decrease in mass.
  • Question 5

 Image of water molecules Image of water moleculesImage of water molecules

Cell A 

 < Permeable membrane

 Image of water moleculesImage of water molecules

Image of water molecules

Cell B

The diagram above shows two cells separated by a permeable membrane. Cell A and Cell B have twelve molecules of water. Which direction will the water move? Select one answer below.

CORRECT ANSWER
No net movement
EDDIE SAYS
There are equal numbers of water molecules in Cell A and Cell B so water will continue to move at an equal rate between the cells.
  • Question 6

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After 50 minutes each potato cube's mass was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73
% change in mass +10 +7.5 -2 -10 -13.5

Calculate the rate of uptake in an hour for Beaker 2.

 

CORRECT ANSWER
0.18
EDDIE SAYS
To calculate the rate of uptake - change in mass x (60minutes÷ time measured in minutes) 0.15 x (60 ÷ 50) 0.15 x 1.2 = 0.18
  • Question 7

Image of osmosis occurring in red blood cells

The beakers above show red blood cells in different concentrations of sugar solutions.

Which beaker shows a solution with the highest water potential in comparison to the red blood cells? Type A, B or C below.

CORRECT ANSWER
B
EDDIE SAYS
Beaker B has red blood cells that are swollen. This means the red blood cells must have a lower water potential in comparison to the solution it is in. Water moves into the red blood cell from a high water potential to a lower water potential.
  • Question 8

Image of osmosis occurring in red blood cells

The beakers above show red blood cells in different concentrations of sugar solutions.

Which beaker shows red blood cells in an isotonic solution and why? Match up the descriptions to answer this question.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

A
Water is entering and leaving the...
B
More water is entering the red bl...
C
More water is leaving the red blo...
EDDIE SAYS
An isotonic solution is when the concentration of water is the same both inside and outside of the cell. Water moves into and out of the cell at the same rate.
  • Question 9

Osmosis can be demonstrated using cubes of potatoes of roughly the same mass. Placing the cubes in different concentrations of sugar solutions the cubes might gain or lose mass, or may even stay the same mass.

Lara did an experiment in school on the effect of sugar solutions on potato pieces.  The potato pieces were of equal size. She measured the mass of each potato cube and placed it in a beaker of different concentrations of sugar solution. After two hours each potato cube's mass was measured.

Beaker  1 2 3 4 5
Sugar concentration (M)  0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Initial mass (g) 2 2 2 2 2
Final mass (g) 2.20 2.15 1.96 1.80 1.73

Calculate the change in mass in beaker 2 and beaker 3. Type your answer for beaker 2 first then type your answer for beaker 3.

CORRECT ANSWER
0.15
0.15g
-0.04
-0.04g
EDDIE SAYS
To calculate the change in mass: (Final mass – initial mass). For Beaker 2: 2.15 - 2 = 0.15g For Beaker 3: 1.96 - 2 = -0.04g
  • Question 10

Image of flaccid plant cell

The above image is of a plant cell. What is happening to the water in this cell? Fill in the blanks to answer this question.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
A plant cell that has its cell membrane pulled away from the cell wall is showing a flaccid cell. All the water has left the cell by osmosis. It's a bit like using a straw to suck out all the juice out of a carton, the carton loses its shape.
---- OR ----

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