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Understand Neutralisation

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

There are lots of times we need to get rid of an acid completely. Stomach aches are often caused by too much acid in the stomach. If a pond is too acidic, life will not thrive in it. Neutralisation an acid with an alkali is one way of doing this, but there are others. By looking at the patterns, and thinking about the ions involved, we can predict what will happen for each type of reaction. Remember that the thing that makes acids acidic is the presence of excess H+ ions. If we want to make the pH neutral again, we need to react these ions away.

Acid + base, or acid + alkali

A base is a chemical which reacts with an acid to make a salt and water, and nothing else. The most common bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxides. Some bases dissolve in water; these are given the special name alkali. Because alkalis dissolve in water, we can talk about them having a pH; the pH of alkalis is greater than 7. Acids contain hydrogen, and oxides contain oxygen, so we can react them to make water. Similarly, reacting hydrogen with hydroxide produces water.

No matter what the acid, base or alkali are, the reactions all follow the same pattern:

acid + base → salt + water

(for example, sulfuric acid + copper oxide →  copper sulfate + water)

acid + alkali → salt + water

(for example, nitric acid + sodium hydroxide →sodium nitrate + water)

Acid + metal

We can also react acid with metal. The products are a salt + hydrogen gas. The part of the acid which isn't hydrogen reacts with the metal to make a salt, leaving the hydrogen by itself. 

acid + metal → salt + hydrogen

(for example, hydrochloric acid + magnesium → magnesium chloride + hydrogen)

Acid + carbonate

The final reaction you need to know is what happens when we react acid with a carbonate compound. Carbonate is CO3, and hydrogen from the acid reacts with one of the oxygens to make water. That leaves CO2 left over, which is carbon dioxide. So we get

acid + carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide

(for example, nitric acid + calcium carbonate → calcium nitrate + water + carbon dioxide

Naming the salt

All these reactions produce a salt. The rules for naming the salt are the same for all the reactions:

1.  Look at the name of the non-acid (the alkali / base / carbonate / metal). There will be a metal mentioned in the name, usually as the first word. Look at the examples in this introduction- copper oxide, sodium hydroxide, magnesium, calcium carbonate. That metal name will be the metal in the name of the salt, which is the first word in the name. Look at the salts made in the examples- copper sulfate, sodium nitrate, magnesium chloride, calcium nitrate.

2. Now look at the acid used, which will tell you what type of salt is produced. There are three you are expected to know:

nitric acid, which produces nitrates

sulfuric acid, which produces sulfates

hydrochloric acid, which produces chlorides

Check the examples again- they all follow this rule.

And that's it! The name of the acid, and the metal added let us predict the salt form. The compound the metal is in initially (alkali, base, pure metal, carbonate) tells us what else is produced.

 

Which of these statements about bases and alkalis are true? Tick all the correct answers.

Bases are soluble, alkalis are in insoluble.

Bases are insoluble, alkalis are in soluble.

Bases and alkalis both produce a salt and water when reacted with acids.

Bases and alkalis are often oxides and hydroxides of metals

All oxides are bases, all hydroxides are alkalis

Alkalis have a pH of more than 7, bases do not have pH.

Match up these half-equations for the different reactions with acids.

Column A

Column B

acid + base (or acid + alkali) →
salt + water
acid + metal →
salt + hydrogen
acid + carbonate →
salt + water + carbon dioxide

What are the products when hydrochloric acid and lithium hydroxide react?

hydrogen

water

carbon dioxide

lithium chloride

lithium hydrate

chlorine hydrate

What would be produced when nitric acid reacts with zinc oxide? Tick all the right answers. 

zinc nitrate

water

carbon dioxide

sodium sulfate

hydrogen

sodium nitrate

Which salt would be produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium carbonate?

Potassium hydrate

Potassium chloride

Sodium chloride

If we want to make copper sulfate, what chemicals must we react? Pick one from each list

Potassium hydrate

Potassium chloride

Sodium chloride

What is the salt produced when sulfuric acid reacts with zinc carbonate? Write the two words in the answer box below.

What salt produced when potassium metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? 

What salt will be produced when we react magnesium oxide with nitric acid?

Imagine that we add some unlabeled powder to a beaker of sulfuric acid. (Don't add unlabeled powers to acids yourself- it's potentially very dangerous!)

We see bubbles in the beaker, and make a blue solution, which we are fairly sure is copper sulfate.

Assuming we are right, what might the powder have been? Tick all the possible answers.

copper

copper oxide

copper carbonate

copper hydroxide

  • Question 1

Which of these statements about bases and alkalis are true? Tick all the correct answers.

CORRECT ANSWER
Bases are insoluble, alkalis are in soluble.
Bases and alkalis both produce a salt and water when reacted with acids.
Bases and alkalis are often oxides and hydroxides of metals
Alkalis have a pH of more than 7, bases do not have pH.
EDDIE SAYS
The most common bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxides. There are rules about whether a compound doesn't dissolve in water, but they aren't important here. Bases and alkalis produce the same products when they react with acids.
  • Question 2

Match up these half-equations for the different reactions with acids.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

acid + base (or acid + alkali) ...
salt + water
acid + metal →
salt + hydrogen
acid + carbonate →
salt + water + carbon dioxide
EDDIE SAYS
Make sure that you know these patterns by heart, because they make sense of everything else. Acid + metal doesn't have any oxygen, so you can't make water, and carbonate is the only chemical here to contain carbon dioxide.
  • Question 3

What are the products when hydrochloric acid and lithium hydroxide react?

CORRECT ANSWER
water
lithium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
This reaction will make salt, water and nothing else. The salt will take lithium from lithium hydroxide, and chloride from hydrochloric acid.
  • Question 4

What would be produced when nitric acid reacts with zinc oxide? Tick all the right answers. 

CORRECT ANSWER
zinc nitrate
water
EDDIE SAYS
Zinc oxide is a base, so we use acid + base → salt + water. Zinc nitrate would be produced, because nitric acid gives nitrates and the metal of the oxide is zinc.
  • Question 5

Which salt would be produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium carbonate?

CORRECT ANSWER
Potassium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
The salt produced would be potassium chloride, because hydrochloric acid gives chlorides (not hydrates!) and the metal in the carbonate is potassium.
  • Question 6

If we want to make copper sulfate, what chemicals must we react? Pick one from each list

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
We need sulfuric acid to make a sulfate. We need copper (as either a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate) to react with the acid. Copper oxide is the only possibility on the list.
  • Question 7

What is the salt produced when sulfuric acid reacts with zinc carbonate? Write the two words in the answer box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
zinc sulfate
zinc sulphate
EDDIE SAYS
The metal in zinc carbonate is zinc, and the sulfuric acid makes sulfate salts, so the salt is zinc sulfate. (Sulphate isn't the correct spelling now, but you might see it on older books, and it wouldn't be marked wrong.)
  • Question 8

What salt produced when potassium metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? 

CORRECT ANSWER
potassium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
Acid + metal makes salt plus hydrogen gas. The name of the salt is potassium (because that was the metal used) chloride (because we used hydrochloric acid). The reactions of acid with alkali metals are very violent; you can find videos of them online, but they are very dangerous to do.
  • Question 9

What salt will be produced when we react magnesium oxide with nitric acid?

CORRECT ANSWER
magnesium nitrate
EDDIE SAYS
Magnesium comes from magnesium oxide, and nitrate comes from nitric acid.
  • Question 10

Imagine that we add some unlabeled powder to a beaker of sulfuric acid. (Don't add unlabeled powers to acids yourself- it's potentially very dangerous!)

We see bubbles in the beaker, and make a blue solution, which we are fairly sure is copper sulfate.

Assuming we are right, what might the powder have been? Tick all the possible answers.

CORRECT ANSWER
copper
copper carbonate
EDDIE SAYS
Copper oxide and copper hydroxide just make a salt and water, so they wouldn't give us any bubbles. Copper metal with acid would give hydrogen gas, and copper carbonate with acid would give carbon dioxide. We could see what the gas is by trying the squeaky pop test and the turning limewater milky tests.
---- OR ----

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