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Evaluate Key Quotes and Their Impact in 'Journey's End'

In this worksheet, students will look more closely at key quotations in the text, analysing their impact on the play 'Journey's End' as a whole.

'Evaluate Key Quotes and Their Impact in 'Journey's End'' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 4

GCSE Subjects:   English Literature

GCSE Boards:   Pearson Edexcel

Curriculum topic:   Post-1914 Play or Novel

Curriculum subtopic:   Journey's End

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

magnifying glass

 

To achieve the highest marks in the exam, you need to analyse quotations closely.

 

Try to zoom in on different parts of a quotation to explore the connotations of words. 

 

For example, in the quotation:

 

"Gloomy tunnels lead out of the dugout to left and right"

 

magnifying glass ...you might zoom in on the word "Gloomy"  - the connotations might be dark/depressing/miserable

magnifying glass....and zoom in on the word "Tunnels" - the connotations might be small/cramped/claustrophobic

 

You should also ensure that you choose quotations carefully - which quotation illustrates your point the best?

 

Now have a go at the following questions, which will help you to analyse quotations more closely and choose the best quotations to support a point.

The stage directions are important in 'Journey's End', offering lots of symbolism to convey additional meaning in the play. Light and dark symbolism is a motif that runs throughout 'Journey's End.'

 

In the following quotations, what do you think light is representing?

 

Act one - "Warm yellow candle flames light the other corner"

Act two - "Candles still burn"

Act three - "The candles are no longer burning"

Act three, in the final stage directions - "The shock stabs out the candle-flame"

Whilst Sherriff uses the symbol of light to represent life, what symbol does he use to represent death? Underline the key word that shows this in the quotation below.

\"The solitary candle burns with a steady flame, and Raleigh lies in the shadows\"

What might the following quotation suggest about the lives the men are leading in the trenches?

 

"Hardy: Why, that earwig. It's been running round and round that candle since tea-time; must have done a mile."

The repetitive nature of the earwig's behaviour reflects the nature of endless waiting for attack, experiencing an attack and then waiting again for the next one

Like many of the other animals, such as rats and worms, the earwig reflects the dirty conditions in the trenches

Sherriff also focuses on images of nature in the play. In the following quotation, what is the effect on the audience?

 

"Osborne: It's a wonderful morning.

Trottter: Isn't it lovely? Makes you feel sort of young and 'opeful. I was up in that old trench under the brick wall just now and damned if a bloomin' little bird didn't start singing! Didn't 'arf sound funny. Sign of spring, I s'pose."

Sherriff creates a feeling of hope through the image of spring, which suggests new beginnings. The audience is left feeling optimistic about the future of Sherriff's characters

The way in which nature suggests new beginnings is juxtaposed against the images of repetitive cycles and waiting. Nature is almost mocking the men here, continuing to evolve when the men's lives are following the same, repetitive pattern of waiting, death and more waiting

Sherriff creates a sense of foreboding through the spring like imagery - this imagery is so at odds with the other ideas presented in the play, it only serves to heighten the anticipation that this beauty and life will soon be destroyed

Many contrasts are used throughout the play, particularly to highlight aspects of character. In Act one, the stage directions provide some contrasting details about Raleigh and Stanhope.

 

Match the quotations below to the character they are describing.

 

As you do so, try to think about why these contrasting details are important to our understanding of the two characters.

Column A

Column B

Stanhope
"Despite his stars of rank he is no more than a bo...
Stanhope
"There is a pallor under his skin and dark shadows...
Stanhope
"He looks around, a little bewildered"
Raleigh
"He is good-looking, rather from attractive featur...
Raleigh
"He is a well-built, healthy looking boy of about ...
Raleigh
"Laugh's nervously"

Time and food also feature as motifs throughout 'Journey's End'. Consider the importance of these motifs by matching the following quotations to the effect they have on the audience.

 Trotter's obsession with food allows him to bring some normality into this strange environment and offers a distractionSherriff highlights the repetitive pattern of men's lives on the front lineFocusing on food offers a distraction from the fear building just before the raidLooking at clocks and watches builds anticipation for the incoming attackSherriff emphasises how waiting and boredom were unseen horrors of war
"He looks anxiously at his watch"
"We're having something special for dinner aren't we?"
"Tick!-Tock! -wind up the clock And we'll start the day over again"
"Trotter's plan to make the time pass quickly"
"We must have pepper in soup!"

For the highest marks in the exam, you need to choose short quotations to support your ideas and embed these within your sentences.

 

In the example below, a long quotation has been used and it is not embedded in a sentence:

 

Sherriff highlights how intimidating the Sergeant Major is and contrasts this with the innocence of the young German soldier they have captured. Sheriff says "With a huge fist he takes the boy by the collar and draws him to his feet. The boy sobs hysterically." This has the effect of making the audience feel sorry for the German soldier, understanding that he too is just a young and innocent boy. 

 

This could be improved by just picking out a word or few words from the sentence that best illustrate a point. Complete the passage below to show which words could be picked out as shorter, more specific quotations to embed within the sentences.

 

You do not need to use quotation marks in the answer boxes.

 Trotter's obsession with food allows him to bring some normality into this strange environment and offers a distractionSherriff highlights the repetitive pattern of men's lives on the front lineFocusing on food offers a distraction from the fear building just before the raidLooking at clocks and watches builds anticipation for the incoming attackSherriff emphasises how waiting and boredom were unseen horrors of war
"He looks anxiously at his watch"
"We're having something special for dinner aren't we?"
"Tick!-Tock! -wind up the clock And we'll start the day over again"
"Trotter's plan to make the time pass quickly"
"We must have pepper in soup!"

For the highest marks in the exam, you will also need to be able to choose quotations carefully. Always make sure you have chosen the best quotation to support the point you wish to make.

 

Which of the following quotations best supports the idea that Raleigh is just a young, innocent boy when he arrives?

"Laughs nervously"

"He self-consciously holds up his drink"

"I landed a week ago"

It is now time to have a go at some extended writing, practising analysing quotations.

 

Try to zoom in on key parts of a quotation and explore the connotations of words.

 

In your paragraph, use short quotations to support your points and embed them within your own sentences.

 

Task: In Act three, Scene two we see Hibbert acting crudely with the other men. Evaluate how far you would agree that Hibbert is a dislikable character in this scene?

 

Try to write three paragraphs in total.

Now have a go at this one.

 

Remember - 

 

Try to zoom in on key parts of a quotation and explore the connotations of words.

 

In your paragraph, use short quotations to support your points and embed them within your own sentences.

 

 

Task: In Act three, Scene two we see Trotter talking with Stanhope about whether he ever gets upset. Do you think Trotter ever feels fear?

 

Try to write three paragraphs in total.

  • Question 1

The stage directions are important in 'Journey's End', offering lots of symbolism to convey additional meaning in the play. Light and dark symbolism is a motif that runs throughout 'Journey's End.'

 

In the following quotations, what do you think light is representing?

 

Act one - "Warm yellow candle flames light the other corner"

Act two - "Candles still burn"

Act three - "The candles are no longer burning"

Act three, in the final stage directions - "The shock stabs out the candle-flame"

CORRECT ANSWER
Life
EDDIE SAYS
Notice how, at the beginning of the play, the dugout is filled with the light of the candle and it's described as "warm" and "yellow". At this point in the play, the dugout is filled with the life of the soldiers, some such as Raleigh still hopeful. As the play progresses, the brightness of the light diminishes until the candle is completely extinguished at the end. Notice how, as the soldiers get closer to the attack, the light is reduced, suggesting that their lives are also drawing to a close. The death of Raleigh at the end of play is accompanied by the image of the candle abruptly dying, which is the ultimate symbol of death or indeed the 'Journey's End'.
  • Question 2

Whilst Sherriff uses the symbol of light to represent life, what symbol does he use to represent death? Underline the key word that shows this in the quotation below.

CORRECT ANSWER
"The solitary candle burns with a steady flame, and Raleigh lies in the shadows"
EDDIE SAYS
Well done if you chose "shadows". If we explore the connotations of the word "shadows", we might see that darkness is suggested and this can then lead onto the idea of death. Sherriff uses contrasting imagery to juxtapose life and death in the stage directions, the "shadows" and imagery related to darkness, offering a stark reminder that the life in the dugout is always under threat in this environment.
  • Question 3

What might the following quotation suggest about the lives the men are leading in the trenches?

 

"Hardy: Why, that earwig. It's been running round and round that candle since tea-time; must have done a mile."

CORRECT ANSWER
The repetitive nature of the earwig's behaviour reflects the nature of endless waiting for attack, experiencing an attack and then waiting again for the next one
EDDIE SAYS
The trenches are certainly described as dirty, but we need to look at the quotation a little deeper to really understand its significance. The running "round and round" is the key part of the quotation, because it mirrors the men's feelings about their lack of progress, their endless waiting and then the repetition of this cycle.
  • Question 4

Sherriff also focuses on images of nature in the play. In the following quotation, what is the effect on the audience?

 

"Osborne: It's a wonderful morning.

Trottter: Isn't it lovely? Makes you feel sort of young and 'opeful. I was up in that old trench under the brick wall just now and damned if a bloomin' little bird didn't start singing! Didn't 'arf sound funny. Sign of spring, I s'pose."

CORRECT ANSWER
The way in which nature suggests new beginnings is juxtaposed against the images of repetitive cycles and waiting. Nature is almost mocking the men here, continuing to evolve when the men's lives are following the same, repetitive pattern of waiting, death and more waiting
Sherriff creates a sense of foreboding through the spring like imagery - this imagery is so at odds with the other ideas presented in the play, it only serves to heighten the anticipation that this beauty and life will soon be destroyed
EDDIE SAYS
This is a tricky one! Well done for giving it a go! This is an example of where you need to look at quotations in context. The imagery certainly evokes the idea of new beginnings, however, when considered in the context of the play, which is focused on incessant waiting and the reminders of the incoming attack, we are forced to view this imagery differently. Indeed, rather than new beginnings, the characters here are approaching their 'Journey's End'.
  • Question 5

Many contrasts are used throughout the play, particularly to highlight aspects of character. In Act one, the stage directions provide some contrasting details about Raleigh and Stanhope.

 

Match the quotations below to the character they are describing.

 

As you do so, try to think about why these contrasting details are important to our understanding of the two characters.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

Stanhope
"Despite his stars of rank he is ...
Stanhope
"He is good-looking, rather from ...
Stanhope
"There is a pallor under his skin...
Raleigh
"He is a well-built, healthy look...
Raleigh
"He looks around, a little bewild...
Raleigh
"Laugh's nervously"
EDDIE SAYS
Did you manage to match them all? If we're to evaluate the effect of the quotations here, we might question how Sherriff draws similarities and differences between the two men. Notice how both men are described as young and both as 'boys'. However, we can see more focus on Stanhope's experience and Raleigh's inexperience as he looks around "bewildered". What is also interesting here is how Sherriff distinguishes between Raleigh's good looks coming from his health, as a new and innocent officer, as opposed to Stanhope, who also has "attractive features", but Sherriff highlights the "pallor" and "dark shadows", which emphasise his experience and how this is taking its toll on his body.
  • Question 6

Time and food also feature as motifs throughout 'Journey's End'. Consider the importance of these motifs by matching the following quotations to the effect they have on the audience.

CORRECT ANSWER
 Trotter's obsession with food allows him to bring some normality into this strange environment and offers a distractionSherriff highlights the repetitive pattern of men's lives on the front lineFocusing on food offers a distraction from the fear building just before the raidLooking at clocks and watches builds anticipation for the incoming attackSherriff emphasises how waiting and boredom were unseen horrors of war
"He looks anxiously at his watch"
"We're having something special for dinner aren't we?"
"Tick!-Tock! -wind up the clock And we'll start the day over again"
"Trotter's plan to make the time pass quickly"
"We must have pepper in soup!"
EDDIE SAYS
Here, we can see the importance of looking at quotations carefully and choosing the right ones to best support our points. There are some subtle differences in the quotations, for example, "start the day over again" is more evocative of repetition, while looking "anxiously" is more suggestive of anticipation. While both quotations focus on time, their meanings are quite different. Remember this for the exam - does your quotation fully support the point you wish to make?
  • Question 7

For the highest marks in the exam, you need to choose short quotations to support your ideas and embed these within your sentences.

 

In the example below, a long quotation has been used and it is not embedded in a sentence:

 

Sherriff highlights how intimidating the Sergeant Major is and contrasts this with the innocence of the young German soldier they have captured. Sheriff says "With a huge fist he takes the boy by the collar and draws him to his feet. The boy sobs hysterically." This has the effect of making the audience feel sorry for the German soldier, understanding that he too is just a young and innocent boy. 

 

This could be improved by just picking out a word or few words from the sentence that best illustrate a point. Complete the passage below to show which words could be picked out as shorter, more specific quotations to embed within the sentences.

 

You do not need to use quotation marks in the answer boxes.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
How did you do? This is a higher level skill and if you can master this, your exam responses will achieve much higher marks. Remember to zoom in on the parts of the quotations that really matter and leave the unnecessary parts out - your points will then be much better evidenced. Embedding these shorter quotations within your sentences will also create a more fluent and sophisticated writing style that will impress the examiners for the higher marks!
  • Question 8

For the highest marks in the exam, you will also need to be able to choose quotations carefully. Always make sure you have chosen the best quotation to support the point you wish to make.

 

Which of the following quotations best supports the idea that Raleigh is just a young, innocent boy when he arrives?

CORRECT ANSWER
"He self-consciously holds up his drink"
EDDIE SAYS
This is a tricky one! You'll need to look at the connotations of the words here. He may be nervous because he's inexperienced, but it doesn't show that he's innocent as specifically as the way in which he takes the glass of whisky. It's important to look at this quotation in context again, but the focus on him taking the drink "self-consciously" really highlights that he's not experienced in drinking like the men here and is not really sure how to do this. This would be the best quotation to illustrate the point here and also is a great one to demonstrate deeper analysis of the connotations of words.
  • Question 9

It is now time to have a go at some extended writing, practising analysing quotations.

 

Try to zoom in on key parts of a quotation and explore the connotations of words.

 

In your paragraph, use short quotations to support your points and embed them within your own sentences.

 

Task: In Act three, Scene two we see Hibbert acting crudely with the other men. Evaluate how far you would agree that Hibbert is a dislikable character in this scene?

 

Try to write three paragraphs in total.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
A paragraph might look something like this: Sherriff also builds some sympathy for Hibbert in this scene. Hibbert shows the men photos of women and looks up into Stanhope's face "for approval", suggesting that he is using this conversation as a way of becoming part of the brotherhood. This is all the more significant when considering that Stanhope had previously accused Hibbert of being a "disgrace" to his fellow men. We see Hibbert making an effort here as a comrade. There is also a suggestion that Hibbert may not be completely comfortable talking in this crude way, as the stage directions describe him as "nervously twitching", also conveying a sense that underneath all of the bravado, Hibbert is still struggling and perhaps using this conversation to distract himself from the terror he feels. Indeed, Hibbert's "high pitched and excited" laugh evokes a sense of loss of control and fragility.
  • Question 10

Now have a go at this one.

 

Remember - 

 

Try to zoom in on key parts of a quotation and explore the connotations of words.

 

In your paragraph, use short quotations to support your points and embed them within your own sentences.

 

 

Task: In Act three, Scene two we see Trotter talking with Stanhope about whether he ever gets upset. Do you think Trotter ever feels fear?

 

Try to write three paragraphs in total.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
A paragraph might look something like this: Sherriff demonstrates that, despite Trotter appearing outwardly jovial and brave, he experiences fear like many of the soldiers. We see Trotter's fear when it is "Too damn quiet", suggesting that he struggles with the horror of the waiting and anticipation for something to happen. He talks of "The big attack soon, I reckon", showing that this is never far from his mind. The way in which he moves from this conversation to talk about his "flower borders" suggests that his conversation recalling a time before the war works as a welcome distraction from the real fears playing on his mind.
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