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Birth and Beyond

In this worksheet, students will be able to review their understanding of the process of birth, the growth of the baby and the onset of puberty.

'Birth and Beyond' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:   Biology: Structure and Function of Living Organisms

Curriculum subtopic:   Reproduction

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

When you think about it, new life is a total miracle! How is it possible that the sperm and egg - both less than 1mm in size - could contain all the instructions to build a fully-functioning, independent human being? Amazingly, they do!

 

 

 

In this worksheet we'll look at what happens as that baby is born, and we will then look at the child as it develops and grows - it's a journey we've all been on, but look at it in a new light - it truly is a miracle!

 

So, once that egg was fertilised in the woman's oviduct, the embryo developed into a fetus and spent 9 months in the uterus (womb) while the mother was pregnant - this is also called the GESTATION PERIOD.  When the baby is ready to be born, the muscles of the uterus start to contract as they prepare to push the baby out into a waiting world - we would say that the mum is in LABOUR.  This lasts anything from just a couple of hours up to about 24 and out comes a little one weighing about 3-4kg (although, of course, this varies enormously).  About half an hour later the PLACENTA, which supplied all the baby's needs while it was inside the uterus, is expelled from the mother's body, it's job completed.

 

Newborn baby

 

Young mammals are fed on their mother's milk for the first few months of their lives during which time their cells continue to multiply as they grow and grow, fed on the variety of nutrients in the milk.

 

Throughout their early lives, HORMONES are being released into the bloodstream to control various stages of development and that includes PUBERTY, the point at which young people become sexually mature.

 

Are you ready to check out your understanding of what happens at birth and beyond?  You're bringing a mixture of previous knowledge and what's here.  Let's find out ....

 

How long does a human mother spend in pregnancy, with the baby developing inside her?

9 weeks

40 days

9 months

What is the proper term for pregnancy?

gestation period

menstrual period

birth period

What word is used for the time during which the muscles of the uterus contract to push the baby out?

birth

natal period

labour

After the baby is born, the special organ that nourished it is expelled from the uterus about 20 minutes later; it is often known as the 'after-birth'. What is the name of this special organ?

uterus

menstrual lining

placenta

How heavy is a typical newborn baby?

3.5kg

8kg

12kg

 

Once the baby is born, what is the best food for it?

breast milk

formula milk

cow's milk

Babies vary enormously in the rate at which they develop, but at approximately what age is it likely that the child will begin to walk?

6 months

1 year

2 years

What is the main way in which the baby/child grows?

its bones get longer

its cells get bigger

its cells increase in number

As the child grows on, special chemicals are released into the bloodstream that cause the body to begin the process of change at puberty that transforms a child into an adult.

 

What is the name given to these special chemicals?

hormones

red blood cells

impulses

At puberty both boys and girls experience a number of changes on the journey from childhood to adulthood, changes that take several years to complete. These changes are called SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS.

 

 

From the list below select FOUR that you think are typical examples of these puberty changes (some are boy changes, some are girl changes, some are both) by ticking the box.

start to wear glasses

growth of breasts

growth of pubic hair

baldness

stop growing

voice gets deeper

body starts to smell more

begin wanting to go to the cinema

  • Question 1

 

How long does a human mother spend in pregnancy, with the baby developing inside her?

CORRECT ANSWER
9 months
EDDIE SAYS
9 months is 40 weeks (or thereabouts) and is how long it takes for the fertilised egg to develop into a baby that is ready to be born, at quite an advanced stage of development as far as most of the animal kingdom is concerned.
  • Question 2

What is the proper term for pregnancy?

CORRECT ANSWER
gestation period
EDDIE SAYS
In mammals the length of time the baby develops inside the mother is called the GESTATION PERIOD. In humans that's 9 months; in dogs and cats it's about 9 weeks, while for mice it's just 20 days - no wonder they have so many litters in one year!
  • Question 3

What word is used for the time during which the muscles of the uterus contract to push the baby out?

CORRECT ANSWER
labour
EDDIE SAYS
Labour can last just an hour or two or it can take a day and a half; it varies from woman to woman as well as from pregnancy to pregnancy. Labour is the term used to describe the contractions of the uterus as it prepares to push the baby out and then when those contractions grow stronger during birth itself.
  • Question 4

After the baby is born, the special organ that nourished it is expelled from the uterus about 20 minutes later; it is often known as the 'after-birth'. What is the name of this special organ?

CORRECT ANSWER
placenta
EDDIE SAYS
The special organ, developed in the uterus to nourish the growing baby, is called the placenta. It passed food and oxygen into the baby\'s blood and removed its carbon dioxide as well as protecting it from certain diseases and harmful chemicals, like alcohol.
  • Question 5

How heavy is a typical newborn baby?

CORRECT ANSWER
3.5kg
EDDIE SAYS
Newborn babies vary enormously, but if it is born after a full pregnancy, a typical birth-weight is about 3.5kg (or 8lb if you ask Granny!).
  • Question 6

 

Once the baby is born, what is the best food for it?

CORRECT ANSWER
breast milk
EDDIE SAYS
The milk designed for the baby is breast milk and the first few days of it are especially important for the baby as it contains many of the mother's antibodies to help protect the newborn from common diseases. Formula milk is commonly given, often because the Mum cannot breastfeed, but breast milk is best. Babies won't be able to digest cow's milk for several months.
  • Question 7

Babies vary enormously in the rate at which they develop, but at approximately what age is it likely that the child will begin to walk?

CORRECT ANSWER
1 year
EDDIE SAYS
Again, it will differ from baby to baby, but as an average about one year old is a typical age for youngsters to start struggling to walk on their own two feet.
  • Question 8

What is the main way in which the baby/child grows?

CORRECT ANSWER
its cells increase in number
EDDIE SAYS
Growth is the result of an increase in the number of cells: cell division causes that increase. Yes, each cell grows a little after division and the bones get longer because the number of bone cells increases; however, it's that overall increase in cell number that results in growth of the child.
  • Question 9

As the child grows on, special chemicals are released into the bloodstream that cause the body to begin the process of change at puberty that transforms a child into an adult.

 

What is the name given to these special chemicals?

CORRECT ANSWER
hormones
EDDIE SAYS
There are lots of hormones, released by a variety of organs in the body, that cause all sorts of responses, including the changes at puberty. For example, the testes release testosterone which targets all sorts of areas, causing changes that transform a boy into a young man.
  • Question 10

At puberty both boys and girls experience a number of changes on the journey from childhood to adulthood, changes that take several years to complete. These changes are called SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS.

 

 

From the list below select FOUR that you think are typical examples of these puberty changes (some are boy changes, some are girl changes, some are both) by ticking the box.

CORRECT ANSWER
growth of breasts
growth of pubic hair
voice gets deeper
body starts to smell more
EDDIE SAYS
Did you get all four correct? You might think that you stop growing at puberty but you don't - that's usually in your early 20s. Baldness can strike early but it's not a puberty change. As for going to the cinema....! You'll have been doing that for ages! Adolescents sweat more freely, especially boys, so they need to wash more often or they tend to smell! At the same time, pubic hair grows between the legs and the voice gets deeper, although that's more noticeable in boys.
---- OR ----

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