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Physical and Chemical Properties

In this worksheet, students will learn about the physical and chemical properties of elements and how these relate to the Periodic Table.

'Physical and Chemical Properties' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:   Chemistry: The Periodic Table

Curriculum subtopic:   Mendeleev The Periodic Table

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

This is the Periodic Table of all the elements known so far (click on the image to see a larger version):

 

 

The Periodic Table was constructed after consideration of the physical and chemical properties of the elements; it is possible to predict the properties according to the location of each element. The horizontal rows are called periods and the vertical columns are called groups. Properties of elements change across a period and down a group.

Physical properties are measurable values that describe the physical state of an element, whereas chemical properties are qualities of the element evident in a chemical reaction.

Elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells. The picture below shows an atom with the nucleus in the centre and the shells around it. The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons and the spheres around the nucleus are the electrons that orbit the nucleus.

 

 

Moving across a period, from left to right, the number of protons and electrons increases by one and the elements become less metallic. Generally, elements are solid on the left hand side of the table and change to liquid and then to gas as we move to the right. There are some exceptions to this rule, for example hydrogen is on the left, but it is naturally a gas.

Melting and boiling points also show trends across a period, but the trends are a bit more complicated. Generally, from left to right the melting and boiling points rise and reach a peak, after which they fall again - still moving to the right of the same period.

All elements in a group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shell. The trend of melting and boiling points down a group depend on the group itself. For example, in groups 1, 2 and 18 melting and boiling points decrease as you move down the group, whereas in groups 15, 16 and 17 they increase.  

Metals are towards the left and centre of the Periodic Table and non-metals are on the right of the table. As we move from non-metals to metals, the elements become better conductors of electricity and heat, more malleable (can be reshaped easily) and ductile (can be stretched into wires). 

You can see pictures of a metal and a non-metal, respectively, below:

 

 

At the beginning of a period (left side), elements form only ionic bonds. Moving across the period, the tendency to form ionic bonds decreases and some elements on the far right side do not form any bonds at all.

The most chemically active metals appear in the lower left-hand side of the table, whereas the most chemically active non-metals appear in the upper right-hand side. When a metal reacts with a non-metal, electrons are transferred from the metal to the non-metal.

What do we call the horizontal rows of the Periodic Table?

What do we call the vertical columns of the Periodic Table?

Is this statement true or false?

The physical properties of elements become evident during chemical reactions.

true

false

Is this statement true or false?

Elements in the same period have the same number of electrons.

true

false

Tick the two particles that make up the nucleus of an atom.

protons

neutrons

electrons

In what direction across the Periodic Table do elements change from solid to liquid and then gas?

left to right

right to left

Complete this sentence.

In a group of the Periodic Table all elements have the same number of __________ in their outer shell.

electrons

shells

neutrons

Complete this sentence.

__________ are found on the left and centre of the Periodic Table.

metals

non-metals

Complete this sentence.

Metals are better conductors of heat and ___________ than non-metals.

Complete this sentence.

Elements on the left side of the Periodic Table form _________ bonds.

ionic

covalent

no

  • Question 1

What do we call the horizontal rows of the Periodic Table?

CORRECT ANSWER
periods
EDDIE SAYS
The horizontal rows of the Periodic Table are called periods.
  • Question 2

What do we call the vertical columns of the Periodic Table?

CORRECT ANSWER
groups
EDDIE SAYS
The vertical columns of the Periodic Table are called groups.
  • Question 3

Is this statement true or false?

The physical properties of elements become evident during chemical reactions.

CORRECT ANSWER
false
EDDIE SAYS
The statement is false; chemical properties become evident during chemical reactions. Physical properties are measurable values about the physical state of the element.
  • Question 4

Is this statement true or false?

Elements in the same period have the same number of electrons.

CORRECT ANSWER
false
EDDIE SAYS
The statement is false; elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells. The number of electrons increases by one as you move across a period.
  • Question 5

Tick the two particles that make up the nucleus of an atom.

CORRECT ANSWER
protons
neutrons
EDDIE SAYS
Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an atom; electrons orbit around it on the electron shells.
  • Question 6

In what direction across the Periodic Table do elements change from solid to liquid and then gas?

CORRECT ANSWER
left to right
EDDIE SAYS
Elements change from solid to liquid and then gas from the left to the right of the Periodic Table.
  • Question 7

Complete this sentence.

In a group of the Periodic Table all elements have the same number of __________ in their outer shell.

CORRECT ANSWER
electrons
EDDIE SAYS
In a group of the Periodic Table all elements have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
  • Question 8

Complete this sentence.

__________ are found on the left and centre of the Periodic Table.

CORRECT ANSWER
metals
EDDIE SAYS
Metals are found on the left and centre of the Periodic Table.
  • Question 9

Complete this sentence.

Metals are better conductors of heat and ___________ than non-metals.

CORRECT ANSWER
electricity
EDDIE SAYS
Metals are better conductors of heat and electricity than non-metals.
  • Question 10

Complete this sentence.

Elements on the left side of the Periodic Table form _________ bonds.

CORRECT ANSWER
ionic
EDDIE SAYS
Elements on the left side of the Periodic Table form ionic bonds and this tendency decreases as we move towards the right, with some elements on the right side of the table forming no bonds at all.
---- OR ----

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