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Describe how the Body Controls Blood Sugar Concentration

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

image of chocolate cake

 

 

Now, who doesn't love a slice of chocolate cake?! 

Unfortunately, around 4 million people in the UK have to be cautious when consuming food with lots of sugar in, like chocolate cake. Let's find out why below:


 

Glucose is the name given to sugar that's used by the body for energy. The amount of sugar in our blood has to be monitored - sometimes you will have too much and sometimes too little.

The amount of glucose can be affected by:

Eating - causing glucose levels to rise.

Vigorous exercise - causing blood glucose levels to drop

 

The monitoring of glucose levels is an example of homeostasis. ​This is because the body has to keep a constant internal environment. Homeostasis allows the body’s cells to work at their optimum, meaning that conditions are adjusted to allow them to perform at their best. 

The conditions of the environment are always changing. Our body has to respond to these changes, but at the same time ensure that certain internal conditions don't vary too much, otherwise, damage could be caused.

 

Image of types of homeostasis

 

 

Glucose is monitored and controlled by the pancreas. The pancreas produces different hormones in response to the levels of glucose.

Insulin is a hormone that's released when blood glucose levels are high. It causes cells to take in glucose, which is used for respiration. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen

Diabetes is a condition where blood glucose levels aren't maintained - they can get super high or low, and cause all sorts of issues. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.

 

Image of pancreas and insulin effects on glucose

 

Type 1 Diabetes:

The pancreas doesn't produce enough of the hormone insulin.

Blood glucose levels are uncontrollably high.

It is treated with insulin injections.


 

Type 2 Diabetes:

Insulin is produced, but the liver or muscle cells no longer respond to it.

People who are obese are more at risk.

It is controlled by limiting simple carbohydrates in one's diet and  taking more exercise.

 

Image of types of diabetes

 

 

In the following activity, you will describe how the body controls the levels of glucose in the blood.  

 

The concentration of glucose in the blood is controlled by a hormone.

 

What's the name of this hormone?

 

Insulin is a hormone involved in controlling blood sugar levels.

 

Where is this hormone produced?

Pancreas

Liver

Stomach

What condition will a person develop if their body doesn't produce enough of the hormone insulin?

 

Cancer

Diabetes

Flu

Sammy went to his grandma's for dinner. He ate all of his favourite food, including dessert.

The levels of glucose in Sammy's blood will rise.

 

 What will happen to the excess glucose in Sammy's blood?

 

Image of dinner

Cancer

Diabetes

Flu

Diabetes occurs when the body can't control the levels of glucose in the blood properly. There are two types. 

 

Describe type 1 diabetes. 

Type 1 diabetes is when the pancreas fails to produce insulin

Type 1 diabetes is when cells don't respond to insulin

The glucose levels in the blood will remain low

The glucose levels in the blood will remain high unless insulin is injected, usually before meal times

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? 

Column A

Column B

Type 1
Pancreas doesn't make enough insulin
Type 2
Body cells aren't responsive to insulin

How can diet and exercise help someone with type 2 diabetes to maintain healthy levels of glucose in their blood? 

 

Image of people exercising

Exercise increases blood glucose levels

Exercise reduces blood glucose levels naturally

A diet high in simple carbohydrates means less sugar in your blood

A low sugar diet means lower blood sugar levels to regulate

Complete the missing box (A) describing how the body maintains a normal blood glucose level. 

 

Image of the types of diabetes  

Muscle cells aren't able to take in glucose

Because of the insulin, muscle cells are able to take in glucose

There's not enough insulin being made

What happens to Donna's sugar levels when she eats a whole chocolate cake!  

 

Fill in the chart to show the order of events.

 

image of chocolate cake

The amount of glucose in the blood can be affected by different factors.

 

What are the two main factors that affect the levels of glucose in the blood? 

  • Question 1

 

The concentration of glucose in the blood is controlled by a hormone.

 

What's the name of this hormone?

CORRECT ANSWER
insulin
EDDIE SAYS
Insulin is a vital hormone for the body and is produced in the pancreas. You need to remember that it is one of the main hormones involved in blood sugar regulation.
  • Question 2

 

Insulin is a hormone involved in controlling blood sugar levels.

 

Where is this hormone produced?

CORRECT ANSWER
Pancreas
EDDIE SAYS
It's easy to get confused between the roles that the pancreas and the liver play in controlling blood glucose levels. Insulin is produced in the pancreas. The liver doesn't make the hormone insulin, but it does store excess glucose in the form of glycogen.
  • Question 3

What condition will a person develop if their body doesn't produce enough of the hormone insulin?

 

CORRECT ANSWER
Diabetes
EDDIE SAYS
There are an enormous number of people in this country who suffer from diabetes, so it's important to be aware of it. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is where not enough of the hormone insulin is made by the pancreas.
  • Question 4

Sammy went to his grandma's for dinner. He ate all of his favourite food, including dessert.

The levels of glucose in Sammy's blood will rise.

 

 What will happen to the excess glucose in Sammy's blood?

 

Image of dinner

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
The text above describes what will happen in a healthy body - this will not be the case in a person with diabetes. To help you remember: Glucose to glycogen - they both begin with a 'G'!
  • Question 5

Diabetes occurs when the body can't control the levels of glucose in the blood properly. There are two types. 

 

Describe type 1 diabetes. 

CORRECT ANSWER
Type 1 diabetes is when the pancreas fails to produce insulin
The glucose levels in the blood will remain high unless insulin is injected, usually before meal times
EDDIE SAYS
It's easy to get confused by the two types of diabetes. Type 1 is where the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, and type 2 is where cells aren't responsive to insulin. The consequence of this is that type 1 diabetics have to inject themselves with insulin, normally before meals, in order to bring the glucose levels in their blood down to a manageable level.
  • Question 6

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? 

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

Type 1
Pancreas doesn't make enough insu...
Type 2
Body cells aren't responsive to i...
EDDIE SAYS
Both types involve insulin - so don't forget that word! Just remember that type 1 involves making insulin (or not making enough), whereas type 2 is about responsiveness to insulin ( or lack of response by body cells).
  • Question 7

How can diet and exercise help someone with type 2 diabetes to maintain healthy levels of glucose in their blood? 

 

Image of people exercising

CORRECT ANSWER
Exercise reduces blood glucose levels naturally
A low sugar diet means lower blood sugar levels to regulate
EDDIE SAYS
Taking exercise and giving thought to what we eat is important for all of us, but diabetics have to be really careful! When exercising, your body will need more energy so it will use up more glucose. Having a low sugar diet also means there will be less glucose in the blood. This will allow someone with diabetes to reduce their blood glucose levels naturally, without having to inject themselves with insulin.
  • Question 8

Complete the missing box (A) describing how the body maintains a normal blood glucose level. 

 

Image of the types of diabetes  

CORRECT ANSWER
Because of the insulin, muscle cells are able to take in glucose
EDDIE SAYS
The box labelled A is in the healthy part of the diagram! This tells us that it must be working correctly! This means that the correct answer was the second one - the body is getting sufficient insulin, so the muscles can take in the glucose. The first option is referring to type 2 diabetes and option three applies to type 1. Insulin is a little like a key, allowing cells to take in glucose.
  • Question 9

What happens to Donna's sugar levels when she eats a whole chocolate cake!  

 

Fill in the chart to show the order of events.

 

image of chocolate cake

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
If you had trouble with this one, have a few tries at this activity to consolidate your knowledge of blood sugar regulation in homeostasis.
  • Question 10

The amount of glucose in the blood can be affected by different factors.

 

What are the two main factors that affect the levels of glucose in the blood? 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
You need to understand the whole cycle of cause and effect! As you eat food, it will be broken down into glucose which is used for respiration. The more carbohydrates you eat, the more glucose is produced. Exercise will increase the rate of respiration and therefore use up more of the glucose in your body, lowering the sugar levels in the blood. Well done for completing this activity. How do you feel about this topic now?
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