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Understand Neutralisation

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

There are lots of times we need to get rid of an acid completely. Stomach aches are often caused by too much acid in the stomach. If a pond is too acidic, life will not thrive in it. Neutralisation an acid with an alkali is one way of doing this, but there are others. By looking at the patterns, we can predict what will happen for each type of reaction.

Acid + base, or acid + alkali

A base is a chemical which reacts with an acid to make a salt and water, and nothing else. The most common bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxides.

Some bases dissolve in water; these are given the special name alkali. Because alkalis dissolve in water, we can talk about them having a pH; the pH of alkalis is greater than 7.

No matter what the acid, base or alkali are, the reactions all follow the same pattern:

acid + base → salt + water

(for example, sulfuric acid + copper oxide →  copper sulfate + water)

acid + alkali → salt + water

(for example, nitric acid + sodium hydroxide →sodium nitrate + water)

Acid + metal

We can also react acid with metal. The products are a salt + hydrogen gas:

acid + metal → salt + hydrogen

(for example, hydrochloric acid + magnesium → magnesium chloride + hydrogen)

Acid + carbonate

The final reaction you need to know is what happens when we react acid with a carbonate compound. We get

acid + carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide

(for example, nitric acid + calcium carbonate → calcium nitrate + water + carbon dioxide

Naming the salt

All these reactions produce a salt. The rules for naming the salt are the same for all the reactions:

1.  Look at the name of the non-acid (the alkali / base / carbonate / metal). There will be a metal mentioned in the name, usually as the first word. Look at the examples in this introduction- copper oxide, sodium hydroxide, magnesium, calcium carbonate. That metal name will be the metal in the name of the salt, which is the first word in the name. Look at the salts made in the examples- copper sulfate, sodium nitrate, magnesium chloride, calcium nitrate.

2. Now look at the acid used, which will tell you what type of salt is produced. There are three you are expected to know:

nitric acid, which produces nitrates

sulfuric acid, which produces sulfates

hydrochloric acid, which produces chlorides

Check the examples again- they all follow this rule.

And that's it! The name of the acid, and the metal added let us predict the salt form. The compound the metal is in initially (alkali, base, pure metal, carbonate) tells us what else is produced.

 

What is a neutralisation reaction? Tick two boxes.

A reaction that produces a salt

A reaction that produces hydrogen gas

A reaction between an acid and an alkali

A reaction between a metal and an acid

Choose two types of substances that are the most common bases.

Metal acids

Metal carboxides

Metal oxides

Metal hydroxides

What would be the salt produced when hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide react?

Potassium chloride

Potassium nitrate

Copper sulfate

What are the products when a metal oxide and an acid react? Tick two products.

Metal hydroxide

Salt

Water

chloride

What would be produced when nitric acid reacts with copper oxide? Tick all the right answers. 

copper sulfate

water

carbon dioxide

copper nitrate

hydrogen

sodium nitrate

Which salt would be produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate?

Calcium sulfate

Calcium chloride

Sodium chloride

What are the three products when an acid reacts with a metal carbonate?

Oxygen

Salt

Water

Hydrogen

Another acid

Carbon dioxide

What is the salt produced when sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate? Write the two words in the answer box below.

What is produced when an acid reacts with a base?

salt and water

salt and hydrogen

salt and oxygen

salt, water and carbon dioxide

What is produced when potassium metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? Select one product from each column.

salt and water

salt and hydrogen

salt and oxygen

salt, water and carbon dioxide

  • Question 1

What is a neutralisation reaction? Tick two boxes.

CORRECT ANSWER
A reaction that produces a salt
A reaction between an acid and an alkali
EDDIE SAYS
A neutralisation reaction takes place between acids and alkalis and produces a salt. This is because the two chemicals will react in a way that will always produce a salt.
  • Question 2

Choose two types of substances that are the most common bases.

CORRECT ANSWER
Metal oxides
Metal hydroxides
EDDIE SAYS
The most common bases are metal oxides and metal hydroxides. Metal hydroxides are normally alkalis such as sodium hydroxide. Metal oxides are normally solid such as iron oxide (or rust).
  • Question 3

What would be the salt produced when hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide react?

CORRECT ANSWER
Potassium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
The salt produced in this reaction would be potassium chloride, because hydrochloric acid gives chlorides and the metal in the base is potassium.
  • Question 4

What are the products when a metal oxide and an acid react? Tick two products.

CORRECT ANSWER
Salt
Water
EDDIE SAYS
Salt and water are produced when a metal oxide and an acid react. That salt might be a chloride, but only if the acid had been hydrochloric acid.
  • Question 5

What would be produced when nitric acid reacts with copper oxide? Tick all the right answers. 

CORRECT ANSWER
water
copper nitrate
EDDIE SAYS
Copper oxide is a base, so we use acid + base → salt + water. Copper nitrate would be produced, because nitric acid gives nitrates and the metal of the oxide is copper.
  • Question 6

Which salt would be produced when hydrochloric acid reacts with calcium carbonate?

CORRECT ANSWER
Calcium chloride
EDDIE SAYS
The salt produced would be calcium chloride, because hydrochloric acid gives chlorides and the metal in the carbonate is calcium.
  • Question 7

What are the three products when an acid reacts with a metal carbonate?

CORRECT ANSWER
Salt
Water
Carbon dioxide
EDDIE SAYS
Salt, water and carbon dioxide are produced, as can be seen from this formula:

acid + carbonate --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
  • Question 8

What is the salt produced when sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate? Write the two words in the answer box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
calcium sulfate
calcium sulphate
EDDIE SAYS
The metal in calcium carbonate is calcium, and the sulfuric acid makes sulfate salts, so the salt is calcium sulfate. (Sulphate isn't the correct spelling now, but you might see it on older books, and it wouldn't be marked wrong.)
  • Question 9

What is produced when an acid reacts with a base?

CORRECT ANSWER
salt and water
EDDIE SAYS
The basic equation is acid + base makes salt and water. Then we have to use the rules to work out exactly what base is produced.
  • Question 10

What is produced when potassium metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? Select one product from each column.

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
Acid + metal makes salt plus hydrogen gas. The name of the salt is potassium (because that was the metal used) chloride (because we used hydrochloric acid). The reactions of acid with alkali metals are very violent; you can find videos of them online, but they are very dangerous to do.
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