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Do Diet and Exercise Matter?

In this worksheet, students will consider the importance of exercise and diet to the body's well-being and development.

'Do Diet and Exercise Matter?' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   Animals, including Humans

Curriculum subtopic:   Healthy Bodies: Lifestyle

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

It's all over the media at the moment, isn't it?

 

"This type of diet is best for you."

 

"Exercise for health."

 

"Cut down on red meat and processed food."

 

Confused

 

It's all so confusing. Therefore, we need to cut through all the hype and really find out - do diet and exercise matter?

 

Well, first off, what do we mean by "diet"? In the media it often means, "I'm on a diet" - in other words, I'm watching what I eat, cutting certain foods out. In science, diet has a different meaning: it simply means "what we eat". So, if you're an Inuit, living in northern Canada, your diet has a lot of seal meat and fish in it and not so much fruit and veg. If you're Italian, you may well eat lots more olives, veg, fruit, beans, nuts and so on in your diet, and less meat.

 

Vegetarian diet

 

Your diet provides both your energy and the building blocks of your body - fairly important, then!

 

This activity gives you the chance to check over your understanding of the impacts of diet and exercise on the health of the body, and hopefully gives you a chance to expand that understanding too - let's check it out.

 

 

A professional footballer, athlete, cyclist, rower, whatever, will have a really good understanding of how diet affects their health.

 

sports

 

Which nutrient (food group) do they get most of their energy from to do their sport? Write your answer in the box below.

Now, choose two foods from this list that will provide a lot of ready energy for those doing sports.

Celery

Eggs

Chicken

Muesli bar

Cheese

Apple

Cola drink

Yogurt smoothie

Professional sportsmen and women work their bodies hard when they train, in order to build strong muscles and repair their bodies if they get damaged.

 

weightlifter

 

Which nutrient (food group) will help them to do this? Write your answer in the box.

Now choose two foods from this list that will provide a body with this body-building nutrient.

Eggs

Tomatoes

Cod

Potatoes

Cornflakes

Cherries

Butter

Biscuits

Mrs. Bates's science class have been investigating how exercise affects their bodies.

 

Each student measured how their pulse rate and breathing rate changed when they exercised.

 

pulse

 

What do you think they measured before they started the exercise part of the investigation?

Their height

The temperature of the room

Their pulse and breathing rates

Their weight

Next, each student stepped up and down on to a low platform fifty times.

 

step up

 

Then they measured their pulse and breathing rate again.

 

They pooled their results and Mrs. Bates helped them convert them into a bar graph. Here are the results for 10 students in the class.

 

diet and exercise chart

 

They measured the percentage their rates had increased by - for example, if their pulse rate was twice as fast as normal, that would be a 100% increase.

 

They found that, on average, the class's pulse increased by 79% and their breathing rate by 82%.

 

Look at the readings for student #8. Use the scale on the side (y-axis) to estimate their pulse and breathing rate (to the nearest 5%).

 

 

Their height

The temperature of the room

Their pulse and breathing rates

Their weight

diet and exercise chart

 

Keira thought that student #8 - called Lucy - had made a mistake with her measurements. However, Lucy is keen on swimming, trains in the pool most days and is in the county swimming team for her age group.

 

Looking at the results, we see that the class's average pulse rate increase was 79% and breathing rate increase was 82%. You've just worked out that Lucy's were much lower. How has Lucy's level of training and exercise in the pool improved Lucy's health?

It's given her more stamina

It's made her thinner

It will make her live longer

Name one particular organ in your body which especially benefits from regular exercise and a good diet.

Liver

Kidneys

Eyes

Heart

In the UK at the moment, scientists are getting worried about the increasing number of children whose poor diet and lack of exercise makes them very overweight.

 

What name do scientists give to people who are very overweight? Type your answer into the box.

If a person takes in more energy in their food than they use up through the day, what do you think happens to the rest of the food energy?

It is turned into fat and stored

It is lost through breathing

It is lost through their feces (poo)

It is used to grow taller

Finally, pick out two of the reasons that scientists are worried about the increasing number of children who are very overweight.

Obesity causes heart disease

Fewer people play sports

There is an increase in fast-food outlets

They will do worse in their exams

There is a possibility of a shorter lifespan

  • Question 1

A professional footballer, athlete, cyclist, rower, whatever, will have a really good understanding of how diet affects their health.

 

sports

 

Which nutrient (food group) do they get most of their energy from to do their sport? Write your answer in the box below.

CORRECT ANSWER
carbohydrate
carbohydrates
EDDIE SAYS
Carbohydrates include foods like sugars, cereals, bread, pasta, cake and so on - the sugars give pretty instant energy, starchy foods giving slower-release energy. Carbohydrates are important for all but especially important for those doing sport as they burn up energy quickly and need a ready supply.
  • Question 2

Now, choose two foods from this list that will provide a lot of ready energy for those doing sports.

CORRECT ANSWER
Muesli bar
Cola drink
EDDIE SAYS
You had to do some thinking there! We're looking for high-sugar foods. An apple or a smoothie might look good contenders, but the amount of sugar per gram of food is less than a cola drink or a muesli bar. In fact, professional sportsmen and women probably have specific high-energy bars and drinks, like isotonic drinks.
  • Question 3

Professional sportsmen and women work their bodies hard when they train, in order to build strong muscles and repair their bodies if they get damaged.

 

weightlifter

 

Which nutrient (food group) will help them to do this? Write your answer in the box.

CORRECT ANSWER
protien
protein
proteins
EDDIE SAYS
If you spelt 'protein' with the "ei" the wrong way round, we'll let you off, but don't do it again! Whether you're training to do sports or whether you're just you, protein is what you're made of - yes, really! Your skin, muscle, etc. are actually made of protein, so it's vital stuff!
  • Question 4

Now choose two foods from this list that will provide a body with this body-building nutrient.

CORRECT ANSWER
Eggs
Cod
EDDIE SAYS
So, you're looking for high-protein foods. In this list, that's eggs and cod (fish muscle is made of protein). You might have gone for cornflakes or biscuits, but they're mostly carbohydrates.
  • Question 5

Mrs. Bates's science class have been investigating how exercise affects their bodies.

 

Each student measured how their pulse rate and breathing rate changed when they exercised.

 

pulse

 

What do you think they measured before they started the exercise part of the investigation?

CORRECT ANSWER
Their pulse and breathing rates
EDDIE SAYS
Before you do any investigation of this type, it's vital to take what's called a base reading - that's the reading you can compare any change with. So, the class would measure their resting pulse and breathing rate. Then, if it's different after they've exercised, they can see how much it's changed by. Make sense?
  • Question 6

Next, each student stepped up and down on to a low platform fifty times.

 

step up

 

Then they measured their pulse and breathing rate again.

 

They pooled their results and Mrs. Bates helped them convert them into a bar graph. Here are the results for 10 students in the class.

 

diet and exercise chart

 

They measured the percentage their rates had increased by - for example, if their pulse rate was twice as fast as normal, that would be a 100% increase.

 

They found that, on average, the class's pulse increased by 79% and their breathing rate by 82%.

 

Look at the readings for student #8. Use the scale on the side (y-axis) to estimate their pulse and breathing rate (to the nearest 5%).

 

 

CORRECT ANSWER
EDDIE SAYS
If you look at the bars for student #8, you can see that the % scale (on the y-axis) is going up in the 20s (0/20/40/60/etc.). The orange bar (for pulse rate) is just above the '40' line, so to the nearest 5% that must be a 45% increase in pulse rate. Meanwhile, the grey bar (for breathing rate) is bang in between the 40 and 60 lines, so that's a 50% increase. Phew, that was a toughie! Great focus.
  • Question 7

diet and exercise chart

 

Keira thought that student #8 - called Lucy - had made a mistake with her measurements. However, Lucy is keen on swimming, trains in the pool most days and is in the county swimming team for her age group.

 

Looking at the results, we see that the class's average pulse rate increase was 79% and breathing rate increase was 82%. You've just worked out that Lucy's were much lower. How has Lucy's level of training and exercise in the pool improved Lucy's health?

CORRECT ANSWER
It's given her more stamina
EDDIE SAYS
Whilst any of these might be true, only one can be inferred (worked out) from the results. After prolonged exercise, Lucy's rates were the lowest in the class, so her body is able to cope with an increased level of exercise better - in other words, she has more stamina or staying power, and through training can exercise harder for longer.
  • Question 8

Name one particular organ in your body which especially benefits from regular exercise and a good diet.

CORRECT ANSWER
Heart
EDDIE SAYS
Whilst any organ in your body will work better if your diet and exercise regime is good for you, it is your heart that gains the most. Your heart is almost pure muscle - when you exercise, you exercise your heart too. It lasts longer as a result. When you eat well, your heart is built well and operates efficiently. Diet and exercise really do affect your heart.
  • Question 9

In the UK at the moment, scientists are getting worried about the increasing number of children whose poor diet and lack of exercise makes them very overweight.

 

What name do scientists give to people who are very overweight? Type your answer into the box.

CORRECT ANSWER
obese
obesity
EDDIE SAYS
It's a very real concern: as we've seen, exercise and a good diet benefit the heart and, indeed, the whole body. Conversely, poor diet and a lack of exercise mean that the heart is adversely affected (harmed). People who are at risk of these problems are termed 'obese' as their percentage weight is much higher than what medical professionals deem is the norm.
  • Question 10

If a person takes in more energy in their food than they use up through the day, what do you think happens to the rest of the food energy?

CORRECT ANSWER
It is turned into fat and stored
EDDIE SAYS
Carbohydrates contain lots of everyday energy - we use it throughout the day to complete the tasks our lives require. If we take in, through eating, more than we use up, then there is an excess in our bodies. The body deals with that excess of carbohydrates by turning it into fat and storing it away for a possible 'time of need'. That means, for an increasing number of people, the excess just keeps getting stored and so obesity is often the result.
  • Question 11

Finally, pick out two of the reasons that scientists are worried about the increasing number of children who are very overweight.

CORRECT ANSWER
Obesity causes heart disease
There is a possibility of a shorter lifespan
EDDIE SAYS
Obesity has measurable outcomes: it causes heart disease, which leads to heart attacks, high blood pressure and so on, and it's often the sad fact that obese people live shorter lives as their hearts and bodies are under increased strain. Well done, that’s another activity completed!
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