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In this worksheet, students will look at the importance of recording their investigations in a way that makes their results clear and the variety of display methods available and what is appropriate.

Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   Exam-Style Questions: SATs Science

Curriculum subtopic:   Exam-Style Questions: Recording

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

It's a problem that comes up time and again: how do you record and display your results so that they make sense so that others can see clearly what you were doing and what the results were?

You see, if your record of what you found out in an investigation is hard to understand, unclear or a mish-mash of numbers, you won't have communicated all your hard work.

So, your EdPlace team are here, on the case, ready to guide you through the process of making sure that what happens in your investigations is properly recorded so that the results are clear and easy to derive information from.

As you know, it's these results that are going to tell you whether your hypothesis is borne out by the experimental results or whether something else has happened.

So, how should you present your results - is a table or a chart best, or maybe a graph or a bar chart?  Perhaps a drawing or a diagram may help?

It all depends on what you're investigating, of course, and what sort of results you're getting.

Let's join Mrs. Bates's science class who have been tasting sweets.

Their hypothesis is that you need to see the colour of the sweet to be able to tell what flavour it is

According to the manufacturer of Fruity Chews:

GREEN SWEET = Lime flavour

YELLOW SWEET = Lemon flavour

PINK SWEET = Strawberry flavour

PURPLE SWEET = Blackcurrant flavour

ORANGE SWEET = err.... Orange flavour!

So, the taster ​is blindfolded, given a sweet, and they have to say what flavour they think it is, which the recorder writes down.

Let's see how things are progressing....

In Nathan's group they made a chart to record their results.  Here it is:

 SWEET NUMBER TASTE 1 Orange 2 Orange 3 Lime 4 Lemon 5 Orange 6 Strawberry

Remembering their hypothesis, that the taster needs to see the sweet to tell what flavour it is, do you think this record of their results gives you useful data?

Yes - the flavours of each sweet tested are clear.

No - we only know the flavour, not the colour.

No - we can't tell what order they were in.

Here are Caitlin's results:

 SWEET TYPE NUMBER TASTED Yellow II Orange III Green I Pink IIII Purple II

Caitlin's group have used a tally chart, but what have they done wrong?

Yes - the flavours of each sweet tested are clear.

No - we only know the flavour, not the colour.

No - we can't tell what order they were in.

Bethany's team set out their results like this:

 SWEET COLOUR FLAVOUR GIVEN Orange Lemon Yellow Lemon Pink Strawberry Yellow Lemon Green Lemon Purple Strawberry

What do you feel you can tell from these results?  Tick TWO boxes.

I can tell what flavour each sweet was.

I can tell what the taster thought about each sweet.

They didn't test all the sweets.

It helps me to see if there is any difference between sweet colour and taste.

After one person in each group had tested six sweets (obviously they all had to be a taster!), Mrs. Bates asked them to show their results.

It was clear that some results didn't make much sense as they stood so, as a class, they decided that they needed three headings on their chart to help them to understand the data.

Can you put them in the right order of where they should be written to help the chart make sense?

Once every student had had a chance to taste-test six sweets and give their flavour verdict, the results were collected together.

Here's what they found out:

 TASTE GIVEN COLOUR AND FLAVOUR MATCH COLOUR AND FLAVOUR DON'T MATCH Lemon 15 28 Lime 12 36 Orange 18 18 Strawberry 31 5 Blackcurrant 22 12

Let's see whether the way the class have recorded their results helps you to decide which sweet flavour was the easiest to tell just by taste.

Which sweet flavour won the blindfold taste-test?

Lemon

Lime

Orange

Strawberry

Blackcurrant

In order to try to make it clear which sweets were best and worst at determining ("telling") their flavours, the young scientists worked out the percentage of how often the flavour matched the colour of the sweet.

Using the results from Q5 (below), match the taste percentages that correctly identified the colour of the sweet.

 TASTE GIVEN COLOUR AND FLAVOUR MATCH COLOUR AND FLAVOUR DON'T MATCH Lemon 15 28 Lime 12 36 Orange 18 18 Strawberry 31 5 Blackcurrant 22 12

## Column B

Lemon
86%
Lime
50%
Orange
35%
Strawberry
25%
Blackcurrant
65%

Next, Mrs. Bates asked each group to get together to decide how best to show their results for a display on the classroom wall.

Which of the following do you think was the most popular?  You can choose two answers.

Scatter Graph

Table of Results

Bar Chart

Pie Chart

Three possibilities for displaying the results from their investigation are these:

a) Scatter Graph

b) Bar Chart

c) Pie Chart

Rank these methods of displaying the class's results in the order in which you feel make the results clearest.  From best = 1 to the worst = 3

## Column B

1
Pie Chart
2
Scatter Graph
3
Bar Chart

Mrs. Bates asked the class to use the results of their investigation to put the sweets into two groups: "Harder to identify" and "Easier to identify".

Looking at the results, try to sort the flavours into the correct group.

The young scientists found strawberry and blackcurrant easier to identify by taste alone compared with lemon, lime and orange (which was 50/50).

What do we call these last three types of fruit?

Sour

Citrus

Sharp

Juicy

• Question 1

In Nathan's group they made a chart to record their results.  Here it is:

 SWEET NUMBER TASTE 1 Orange 2 Orange 3 Lime 4 Lemon 5 Orange 6 Strawberry

Remembering their hypothesis, that the taster needs to see the sweet to tell what flavour it is, do you think this record of their results gives you useful data?

No - we only know the flavour, not the colour.
EDDIE SAYS
Unfortunately, Nathan's group have had fun eating sweets but found out very little - they needed to record the colour of the sweet so that they could see whether that matched what the taster thought or if it was different. Hope Mrs. Bates sorts them out soon or there won't be many sweets left!
• Question 2

Here are Caitlin's results:

 SWEET TYPE NUMBER TASTED Yellow II Orange III Green I Pink IIII Purple II

Caitlin's group have used a tally chart, but what have they done wrong?

EDDIE SAYS
We can see that the taster tried 2 yellow sweets, 3 orange sweets and so on, but what flavour did they think each one was? Remember the hypothesis that they have to see the sweet to tell what the flavour is? There's no record of flavour in these results!
• Question 3

Bethany's team set out their results like this:

 SWEET COLOUR FLAVOUR GIVEN Orange Lemon Yellow Lemon Pink Strawberry Yellow Lemon Green Lemon Purple Strawberry

What do you feel you can tell from these results?  Tick TWO boxes.

I can tell what the taster thought about each sweet.
It helps me to see if there is any difference between sweet colour and taste.
EDDIE SAYS
We must always keep their hypothesis in mind and check whether the results are helping to give information to help them decide whether it's right or not. Bethany's team have produced the best results so far because we have a comparison of what colour the sweet was and what flavour the taster thought it was. True, they haven't tested all the sweets, but there are loads of people to have a go yet!
• Question 4

After one person in each group had tested six sweets (obviously they all had to be a taster!), Mrs. Bates asked them to show their results.

It was clear that some results didn't make much sense as they stood so, as a class, they decided that they needed three headings on their chart to help them to understand the data.

Can you put them in the right order of where they should be written to help the chart make sense?

EDDIE SAYS
Remember, recording the data carefully helps not only you understand it but also anyone looking at it. So, to make sense of all those numbers, the test number should be first, followed by the colour of the sweet being tested and finally what flavour the taster thought it was. Once those numbers are in place, we'll be able to think about how to communicate them more visually - numbers are a bit dull on their own!
• Question 5

Once every student had had a chance to taste-test six sweets and give their flavour verdict, the results were collected together.

Here's what they found out:

 TASTE GIVEN COLOUR AND FLAVOUR MATCH COLOUR AND FLAVOUR DON'T MATCH Lemon 15 28 Lime 12 36 Orange 18 18 Strawberry 31 5 Blackcurrant 22 12

Let's see whether the way the class have recorded their results helps you to decide which sweet flavour was the easiest to tell just by taste.

Which sweet flavour won the blindfold taste-test?

Strawberry
EDDIE SAYS
Did you get that? Take the lemon-flavoured sweets: the tasters matched the colour 15 times and got it wrong 28 times. On the other hand, the winner was the strawberry-flavoured sweet: the testers found it the easiest to identify as they correctly picked it 31 times and only misidentified it 5 times. Maybe we can make this data easier to sort out ....!
• Question 6

In order to try to make it clear which sweets were best and worst at determining ("telling") their flavours, the young scientists worked out the percentage of how often the flavour matched the colour of the sweet.

Using the results from Q5 (below), match the taste percentages that correctly identified the colour of the sweet.

 TASTE GIVEN COLOUR AND FLAVOUR MATCH COLOUR AND FLAVOUR DON'T MATCH Lemon 15 28 Lime 12 36 Orange 18 18 Strawberry 31 5 Blackcurrant 22 12

## Column B

Lemon
35%
Lime
25%
Orange
50%
Strawberry
86%
Blackcurrant
65%
EDDIE SAYS
You may have found that really tough or fairly straightforward - maths is a strange thing! Remember the strawberry sweet - that was the easiest to identify, with 31 'correct' tests and only 5 'incorrect'. That means it had an 86% 'success' rate. You don't ACTUALLY have to do the maths - just look and work out the easiest flavours down to the worst. Orange was 18-18, so that's clearly 50/50 (%)! Lime was the hardest to identify with only a 25% success-rate. Come on - there's got to be a better way of showing these results!
• Question 7

Next, Mrs. Bates asked each group to get together to decide how best to show their results for a display on the classroom wall.

Which of the following do you think was the most popular?  You can choose two answers.

Bar Chart
Pie Chart
EDDIE SAYS
When it comes to a great bunch of numbers, it needs something with a visual impact to communicate what all those numbers are telling us. Bar Charts and Pie Charts are the best way of doing this - a scatter graph is not going to be appropriate for these results and a great chart of numbers will be hard to understand.
• Question 8

Three possibilities for displaying the results from their investigation are these:

a) Scatter Graph

b) Bar Chart

c) Pie Chart

Rank these methods of displaying the class's results in the order in which you feel make the results clearest.  From best = 1 to the worst = 3

## Column B

1
Bar Chart
2
Pie Chart
3
Scatter Graph
EDDIE SAYS
We think you'll agree that the scatter graph is pretty useless at conveying the data from the investigation. The pie chart is fairly good, with clear coloured chunks for each sweet and a legend to look up what each one means. However, the bar chart seems to set it out best of all: the coloured bars are clear and the sweet flavour clearly marked beneath each one, with a clear comparison with taste success up the side. It's a clear winner!
• Question 9

Mrs. Bates asked the class to use the results of their investigation to put the sweets into two groups: "Harder to identify" and "Easier to identify".

Looking at the results, try to sort the flavours into the correct group.

EDDIE SAYS
Did you agree with the answers? We reckon that you'll agree that lime was the hardest with lemon next. On the other hand, strawberry is the easiest and blackcurrant the next. So, that leaves orange. At 50%, it's bang in the middle, but is it "easier" to identify? That's why it's in the harder group, with lemon and lime. Hope you agree!
• Question 10

The young scientists found strawberry and blackcurrant easier to identify by taste alone compared with lemon, lime and orange (which was 50/50).

What do we call these last three types of fruit?

Citrus
EDDIE SAYS
Limes, lemons and oranges are all examples of CITRUS fruits - they all contain a good proportion of citric acid, which gives them their sour or sharp flavour. Grapefruit is in there too.
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