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In this worksheet, students will be challenged to look at how the results of an investigation are recorded, what can go wrong and how to think about correctly communicating what they find.

Key stage:  KS 2

Curriculum topic:   Exam-Style Questions: SATs Science

Curriculum subtopic:   Exam-Style Questions: Recording

Difficulty level:

### QUESTION 1 of 10

Recording your findings from an investigation - important?

We should say so!

If you had an idea, tested it out, and got some data, then you need to be able to communicate clearly what that information is.

Only then can you, or anyone else, start to make sense of it.

So, these series of activities are designed to help you gain Investigative Super Skills - then you'll be an EdPlace investigation superstar!

Today we're joining Hannah, Luke, Taylor and Aysha in Mrs. Bates's science class to see what they're up to.

It turns out that they are trying to find out ....

WHETHER MORE SUGAR DISSOLVES IN WATER AS THE TEMPERATURE INCREASES.

Each group were given a plastic beaker of water at a particular temperature.

They were also given a bowl of sugar, spoon and weighing balance.

The young scientists then weighed out sugar, adding it to their beaker of water, stirring it until it had all dissolved.

When they had all finished and noted down how much sugar they had been able to dissolve in their beaker of water, Mrs. Bates asked for their results which she plotted on this graph:

OK, now put yourself in the shoes of one of the team - Hannah, Luke and so on.

Just check this all through again to make sure you understand what YOU are trying to find out.

Then you'll be in a strong position to look at the questions that follow.

Here's that graph again:

This is one way of recording the results of an experiment.  What is it called?

Scatter Graph

Line Graph

Bar Graph

Graph

Look at the graph again and find out which of the temperatures had THREE groups of students measuring how much sugar dissolved in the warm water?

10,15,20,30

15,20,25,30

15,25,30,35

Mrs. Bates then asked the class to point out temperatures where there seem to be results that don't fit with the others very well (we say that they "don't follow the trend of the graph").

Look at the graph and pick THREE temperatures that seem to have incorrect results:

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

In this investigation, with the class of students, there were 18 sets of results.

In any investigation, it's best to have as many results as you can.

Why do you think this is so?

It makes the results more reliable.

It makes sure that everyone gets a go.

It makes sure that the investigation goes on long enough.

Now look at the class's graph again.

Look carefully at the results the three groups recorded for how much sugar dissolved at 25oC.

They are 192g, 207g, and 211g.

Calculate the AVERAGE of those three results (to 1 decimal place).

Once they had finished discussing the results from the graph, Mrs. Bates asked the students to draw a suitable line through the points.

Here is what Aysha did:

Aysha's "suitable line" is not correct, is it?

Which ONE of the following is the least good explanation for what she has done wrong?

She's simply joined all the dots together.

She hasn't understood why there's more than one point for each temperature.

She should have drawn a single line through the points.

She has connected as many points as possible.

Remember that Mrs. Bates wanted "a suitable line" through the points?

So, this is what Luke did:

Can you explain why Luke's line is not right?

He should have drawn a straight line through the highest points.

He's only joined the highest reading for each temperature.

He should have drawn the line lower down.

Hannah listened to what Mrs. Bates wanted them to do, thought about it, and then drew this line:

Can you describe what Hannah has done?

She has drawn a 'line of best fit' through as many points as possible.

She has drawn a line through the middle of the points.

She should have drawn her line lower down.

Here is Hannah's graph of results once more:

Do you remember the point of their investigation?  It was to try to find out whether the amount of sugar that dissolves in water increases with temperature.

Use Hannah's record of the class's results to answer this question:

She has drawn a 'line of best fit' through as many points as possible.

She has drawn a line through the middle of the points.

She should have drawn her line lower down.

Looking at the results from their experiment, Taylor saw that at 30oC around 220g of sugar could be dissolved in the beaker of water.

He then decided to see whether he could dissolve double that amount of sugar in his cup of hot chocolate at 60oC.

Why might this be a bad idea both from a scientific angle and a health angle?  Choose your answers from the table below.

• Question 1

Here's that graph again:

This is one way of recording the results of an experiment.  What is it called?

Scatter Graph
EDDIE SAYS
When there are a lot of results to plot, especially from a whole class, they come out all scattered. So, it's called a .... Scatter Graph! Weird, that!
• Question 2

Look at the graph again and find out which of the temperatures had THREE groups of students measuring how much sugar dissolved in the warm water?

15,25,30,35
EDDIE SAYS
OK, check out that graph carefully. See the temperature lines going up the graph? 20, 25, 30 and so on? Well, look for temp. lines where there are three points plotted (blue/red/green). You'll find them on 15, 25, 30 and 35. Each point represents one group's result, so three points = three groups. Easy! Well, once you get the hang of it, it is and that's why you're here!
• Question 3

Mrs. Bates then asked the class to point out temperatures where there seem to be results that don't fit with the others very well (we say that they "don't follow the trend of the graph").

Look at the graph and pick THREE temperatures that seem to have incorrect results:

15
25
35
EDDIE SAYS
The 'trend' for the results of the investigation is shown by the majority of points that are curving up the graph. Only, 3 don't fit: a high one on 15°C and low ones on 25°C and 35°C. What went wrong there?
• Question 4

In this investigation, with the class of students, there were 18 sets of results.

In any investigation, it's best to have as many results as you can.

Why do you think this is so?

It makes the results more reliable.
EDDIE SAYS
In anything, it would be very risky (and pretty dumb!) to rely on just ONE result - what if that was the time it all went wrong? No, within reason, the more results the better. That gives a good range of answers so that if any of them don't quite fit the trend, they're easy to spot. In science that's really important - getting reliable data and recording it clearly is vital stuff!
• Question 5

Now look at the class's graph again.

Look carefully at the results the three groups recorded for how much sugar dissolved at 25oC.

They are 192g, 207g, and 211g.

Calculate the AVERAGE of those three results (to 1 decimal place).

203.3
203.3g
203.3 g
EDDIE SAYS
OK, so how do you work out an average? Add up all the numbers and divide by how many there are. That's 192 + 207 + 211 = 610. 610 ÷ 3 = 203.3 (grams!)
• Question 6

Once they had finished discussing the results from the graph, Mrs. Bates asked the students to draw a suitable line through the points.

Here is what Aysha did:

Aysha's "suitable line" is not correct, is it?

Which ONE of the following is the least good explanation for what she has done wrong?

She's simply joined all the dots together.
EDDIE SAYS
Oh dear, Aysha really hasn't understood the data on the graph and how to show what it means, has she? What Mrs. Bates wanted her to do is to draw a 'line of best fit' - that is draw a line joining as many of the reliable results as possible. However, saying that she "joined the dots" is the least good explanation of what Aysha's done - that's what you do to make a picture in a puzzle mag on holiday!
• Question 7

Remember that Mrs. Bates wanted "a suitable line" through the points?

So, this is what Luke did:

Can you explain why Luke's line is not right?

He's only joined the highest reading for each temperature.
EDDIE SAYS
So, what Luke's done is simply to join the points recorded for the highest temp. in each group. That's not right! What Mrs. Bates wanted him to do is to draw a line through the AVERAGE results, which ignores the readings that are 'out'. That would give a correct line to show how much sugar dissolves at each temperature in this experiment.
• Question 8

Hannah listened to what Mrs. Bates wanted them to do, thought about it, and then drew this line:

Can you describe what Hannah has done?

She has drawn a 'line of best fit' through as many points as possible.
EDDIE SAYS
Well done Hannah! What she has done is to draw a line which fits as many of the points as possible - basically a line through the AVERAGE results. That's a 'line of best fit'! In the wonderful world of graphs, it's possible to have a line of best fit that doesn't touch any of the points at all! Weird...
• Question 9

Here is Hannah's graph of results once more:

Do you remember the point of their investigation?  It was to try to find out whether the amount of sugar that dissolves in water increases with temperature.

Use Hannah's record of the class's results to answer this question:

EDDIE SAYS
See that line, curving up to the right? That shows that the higher the temperature of the water, the more sugar dissolves in it. Temperature increases to the right; the amount of sugar dissolving increases up the graph.
• Question 10

Looking at the results from their experiment, Taylor saw that at 30oC around 220g of sugar could be dissolved in the beaker of water.

He then decided to see whether he could dissolve double that amount of sugar in his cup of hot chocolate at 60oC.

Why might this be a bad idea both from a scientific angle and a health angle?  Choose your answers from the table below.

EDDIE SAYS
Taylor cannot simply double the temperature of a different liquid and expect twice the amount of sugar to dissolve in it - that's not science, it's guessing! He'd have to set up a whole new investigation. Anyway, who'd want half a kilogram of sugar is their mug of hot chocolate - yuk!
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