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The Earth's Structure and Substance Composition

In this worksheet, students will learn about the structure of the Earth and the elements and compounds it is composed of.

'The Earth's Structure and Substance Composition' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Earth and Atmosphere

Curriculum subtopic:  Composition of the Earth

Difficulty level:  

down

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

The diagram shows the structure of planet Earth. The inner core is solid with a liquid outer core. The core is mainly made of iron. The region between the outer core and the crust is called the mantle. The mantle is made of oxides and silicates, which make various types of rock. Evidence suggests that the mantle is solid, but it liquefies when subjected to high temperatures. The most common elements in the Earth's rocks are oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium. The semi-molten parts of the mantle are called magma.

 

The Earth's lithosphere is made from the tectonic plates, which float on the mantle. The map below shows the tectonic plates that make up the world as we know it. The lithosphere is 100 km (60 miles) deep and it takes up the crust and the upper brittle part of the mantle.

 

 

The tectonic plates constantly move over a few centimetres a year. Over millions of years whole continents have drifted apart; this is called continental drift. The plates move because of the convection currents in the Earth's mantle, caused by heat from the decay of radioactive elements, such as uranium in the Earth's mantle. The diagram below shows the evolution of the Earth over millions of years. The original single continent was called Pangaea.

 

 

 

Earthquakes and volcanic activity are concentrated around the boundaries of the plates. This is the evidence for the existence of tectonic plates. There are three types of boundaries: 

 

Volcanoes form around divergent (also called constructive or tensional) plate boundaries. At a convergent (compressional or destructive) plate boundary the denser oceanic plate is forced underneath the continental plate. The point where this happens is called the subduction zone. An earthquake may be triggered in that area and a volcanic eruption is possible, as magma finds its way through cracks formed by extreme pressure. At transform plate boundaries the plates slide past each other.

What do we call the part in the centre of the Earth? 

inner core

outer core

mantle

What is the main element in the core of the Earth?

aluminium

iron

magnesium

What is the region between the outer core and the crust of the Earth?

inner core

mantle

lithosphere

Tick two main types of compounds that make up the mantle.

oxides

carbonates

iodides

silicates

metalloids

Tick three of the most common elements in the Earth's rocks.

oxygen

silicon

manganate

chlorine

aluminium

What type of plates are in the Earth's lithosphere?

What do we call the phenomenon that causes the tectonic plates to drift apart?

lithospheric phenomenon

plate tectonics

continental drift

What was the original single continent on Earth millions of years ago? 

Pangaea

Panglea

Pamgaea

Where do we find concentrated activity of earthquakes and volcanoes?

in the centre of tectonic plates

around the boundaries of tectonic plates

around the boundaries of countries

At which type of plate boundaries do plates slide past each other?

convergent

divergent

transform

  • Question 1

What do we call the part in the centre of the Earth? 

CORRECT ANSWER
inner core
EDDIE SAYS
The part at the very centre of the Earth is called the inner core.
  • Question 2

What is the main element in the core of the Earth?

CORRECT ANSWER
iron
EDDIE SAYS
The main element in the core of the Earth is iron.
  • Question 3

What is the region between the outer core and the crust of the Earth?

CORRECT ANSWER
mantle
EDDIE SAYS
The region between the outer core and the crust of the Earth is the mantle.
  • Question 4

Tick two main types of compounds that make up the mantle.

CORRECT ANSWER
oxides
silicates
EDDIE SAYS
The main types of compounds that make up the mantle are oxides and silicates.
  • Question 5

Tick three of the most common elements in the Earth's rocks.

CORRECT ANSWER
oxygen
silicon
aluminium
EDDIE SAYS
Three of the most common elements in the Earth's rocks are oxygen, aluminium and silicon.
  • Question 6

What type of plates are in the Earth's lithosphere?

CORRECT ANSWER
tectonic
tectonic plates
EDDIE SAYS
The Earth's lithosphere is made from tectonic plates.
  • Question 7

What do we call the phenomenon that causes the tectonic plates to drift apart?

CORRECT ANSWER
continental drift
EDDIE SAYS
Tectonic plates drift apart due to convection currents formed in the Earth's mantle; this is called continental drift.
  • Question 8

What was the original single continent on Earth millions of years ago? 

CORRECT ANSWER
Pangaea
EDDIE SAYS
The original single continent that was on Earth millions of years ago is called Pangaea.
  • Question 9

Where do we find concentrated activity of earthquakes and volcanoes?

CORRECT ANSWER
around the boundaries of tectonic plates
EDDIE SAYS
Earthquakes and volcanoes are concentrated around the boundaries of tectonic plates.
  • Question 10

At which type of plate boundaries do plates slide past each other?

CORRECT ANSWER
transform
EDDIE SAYS
Tectonic plates slide past each other at transform plate boundaries.
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