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Rock Types

In this worksheet, students will explore the fact that rocks are very important and contain many minerals, as well as the fact that there are many different types of rock.

'Rock Types' worksheet

Key stage:  KS 3

Curriculum topic:  Chemistry: Earth and Atmosphere

Curriculum subtopic:  Rock Cycle and Formation

Difficulty level:  

Worksheet Overview

QUESTION 1 of 10

Most rocks are a mixture of many different minerals and contain naturally occurring compounds. There are THREE main types of rock.

 

Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rocks are usually quite soft and crumbly, this is because they are made of grains that are stuck together. They are formed in layers when sediment is deposited. Shown below are two examples of sedimentary rocks.

 

 Sandstone Limestone 
 sandstone  limestone

 

Metamorphic Rock

Metamorphic rocks are usually hard, smooth and shiny and may have layers of crystals that give them a glittery appearance. They are made of interlocking crystals which are formed when rock is changed by high amounts of pressure and heat. 

 

 Slate  Marble
 slate marble

 

Igneous Rock

Igneous rocks are very hard and similar to metamorphic rock, are formed by interlocking crystals. They are formed when molten rock cools and solidifies. The size of the crystals depends on the rate of cooling. 

 

Granite Basalt
granite basalt
 
 
Use this activity to test your knowledge of rocks and how they are formed.

Which of the following is not a type of rock?

 Type of RockNot a Type of Rock
Metamorphic
Igneous
Clay
Sedimentary
Salt

Sandstone is a crumbly rock made from grains that are stuck together.

 

Which type of rock is sandstone?

metamorphic

igneous

sedimentary

Granite is a very hard rock and can be used to make kitchen worktops.

 

Which type of rock is granite?

metamorphic

igneous

sedimentary

Slate was commonly used to cover the roofs of houses but is now being replaced with more modern materials.  

 

Which type of rock is slate?

metamorphic

igneous

sedimentary

A scientist has discovered a new type of rock and has recorded his observations below:

 

The rock is quite soft to the touch and when rubbed produces lots of small grains similar to sand. When tested in the lab it reacts quite strongly with acids to produce a gas. 

 

To which category of rock does this new rock belong to?

igneous

sedimentary

metamorphic

Metamorphic rock and igneous rock have a common feature relating to their structure.

 

What is this common feature?

both are made from interlocking crystals

both are formed in layers

both are soft and crumbly

A builder is looking to build a large mansion house for a customer.

 

Match each of the rocks to the part of the build that they would be most suitable to use as a building material.

Column A

Column B

stone for walls
slate
roof
marble
worktops in kitchen
sandstone

Shown in the picture below is a marble staircase.

 

Marble staircase

 

Give reasons for and against why marble should be used to build a staircase.

 advantagedisadvantage
colourful
expensive
slippery when wet
hard-wearing
  • Question 1

Which of the following is not a type of rock?

CORRECT ANSWER
 Type of RockNot a Type of Rock
Metamorphic
Igneous
Clay
Sedimentary
Salt
EDDIE SAYS
There are three types of rock: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Clay is a soil formed from rock and salt is a chemical derived from the sea and which may become part of a rock's structure.
  • Question 2

Sandstone is a crumbly rock made from grains that are stuck together.

 

Which type of rock is sandstone?

CORRECT ANSWER
sedimentary
EDDIE SAYS
Sandstone and limestone are examples of sedimentary rock.
  • Question 3

Granite is a very hard rock and can be used to make kitchen worktops.

 

Which type of rock is granite?

CORRECT ANSWER
igneous
EDDIE SAYS
Granite is a very hard rock that can be polished to a high shine. It can be used to make (very expensive!) kitchen worktops because it is so hard and doesn't react with cleaning chemicals.
  • Question 4

Slate was commonly used to cover the roofs of houses but is now being replaced with more modern materials.  

 

Which type of rock is slate?

CORRECT ANSWER
metamorphic
EDDIE SAYS
Slate is hard and smooth and forms sheets. It is also impermeable to water (meaning it doesn't let water through) so it is an ideal material to cover the roofs of houses.
  • Question 5

A scientist has discovered a new type of rock and has recorded his observations below:

 

The rock is quite soft to the touch and when rubbed produces lots of small grains similar to sand. When tested in the lab it reacts quite strongly with acids to produce a gas. 

 

To which category of rock does this new rock belong to?

CORRECT ANSWER
sedimentary
EDDIE SAYS
The rock is probably a sedimentary rock like limestone or chalk, which are also made of small grains. These rocks, which contain the compound calcium carbonate, react with acids and this is why buildings made from them are being damaged by acid rain.
  • Question 6

Metamorphic rock and igneous rock have a common feature relating to their structure.

 

What is this common feature?

CORRECT ANSWER
both are made from interlocking crystals
EDDIE SAYS
Both metamorphic and igneous rock are formed by interlocking crystals.
  • Question 7

A builder is looking to build a large mansion house for a customer.

 

Match each of the rocks to the part of the build that they would be most suitable to use as a building material.

CORRECT ANSWER

Column A

Column B

stone for walls
sandstone
roof
slate
worktops in kitchen
marble
EDDIE SAYS
Marble can be used to make worktops but would be far too heavy and expensive to use for the walls or as tiles for a roof. Sandstone cuts well into blocks and is a great colour. Slate splits into thin sheets, so is perfect for the roof.
  • Question 8

Shown in the picture below is a marble staircase.

 

Marble staircase

 

Give reasons for and against why marble should be used to build a staircase.

CORRECT ANSWER
 advantagedisadvantage
colourful
expensive
slippery when wet
hard-wearing
EDDIE SAYS
Marble staircases are very hard-wearing, look great and will last a very long time, but they are very expensive and very slippery when wet because they are so smooth.
---- OR ----

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