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Use Collision Theory to Explain the Speed of Chemical Reactions

Worksheet Overview

The speed of a chemical reaction makes a big difference to its effects.

Fireworks involve metals reacting with oxygen in a fraction of a second...

 

Fireworks

 

... but rusting happens over a period of years, despite also involving a metal and oxygen.

 

Metal rusting

 

We can describe this difference using an aspect of particle behaviour called collision theory to explain why some reactions are fast and some are slow.

This helps people to make good reactions (such as pretty fireworks) go faster, and make bad reactions (such as metal rusting) go more slowly.

 

Rates of reaction

Suppose we start a chemical reaction and record how much product is made over time. Unless something very strange happens, the graph will look like this:

 

Graph to show volume of gas produced

 

The first part of the graph is a straight line - this is also the time when the reaction is fastest. As time passes, the reaction starts to go more slowly, then it stops. This is called completion - for the reaction in the graph, completion is at about 10 - 12 minutes.

 

The amount of product made doesn't depend on the rate of reaction - it is fixed by the amounts of reactant put into the reaction.

The reaction rate tells us how quickly the reaction happens.

To work out the rate of reaction, we calculate:

 

rate of reaction = amount of product ÷ time taken

 

For example, in the graph, the first two minutes of the graph are pretty much a straight line. In that time, the reaction makes 9 cm3 gas, so:

The initial rate of reaction = 9 cm3 ÷ 2 min = 4.5 cm3 / min.

Since 2 min = 120 s, we could also write this as: the initial rate of reaction = 9 cm÷ 120 s = 0.075 cm3 / s.

 

As the reaction progresses, the rate of reaction slows down. The graph shows this by becoming less steep.

 

 

Collision theory

There are several factors which change the rate of reaction. One big idea links them all - collision theory.

 

For two particles to react, they have to collide in the right orientation and with enough energy to break the atomic bonds in the particles.

The more frequently these collisions happen, the faster the rate of reaction will be.

 

Once we understand collision theory, we can explain why some reactions are fast and some are slow. We can also speed up or slow down reactions if that is what we need to do.

 

To speed up a reaction, we just need to make useful collisions happen more frequently. There are several ways of doing this, which you will learn about in another activity.

 

Now it's time for some questions.

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